Chapter Ten: "The Architect the Pros Love to Hate" (part 2)

 

242    “Player in a playoff over Kel Nagle”  By the time of his Open victory at Bellerive, Gary Player was already a star, along with Palmer and Nicklaus part of golf’s “Big Three.” Having won the 1959 British Open, 1961 Masters, and 1962 PGA Championship, Player’s victory at the Open at Bellerive gave him the “career Slam,” with wins in each of the four majors.

          Both Player and Nagle played majestic golf to finish at 282, two over par, with Player winning the next day in a playoff with a 71 to his foe’s 74. [NOTE:  In a move primarily made to satisfy television, the USGA for the ’65 Open had done away with the double round on Open Saturday, saying that 36 holes in one day, as evident in Ken Venturi’s torment at Congressional had demonstrated, made the championship “more a test of endurance and less a test of golf.” It was a “controversial break with tradition,” but an arrangement that “enabled television to carry the tournament on two days instead of just a single broadcast on Saturday” (Flaherty, The U.S. Open: 1895-1965, p. 186).  Player never broke 70 in any of the five rounds; Nagle shot 68 for the first round lead and a 69 in Sunday’s final round to tie Player. The lowest rounds of the tournament, 68, were turned in by Nagle and, on the last day, by Raymond Floyd.

          The 1965 U.S. Open was only the first of many national and world championships to be held at Bellerive Country Club and, unfortunately, par as the standard fell completely by the wayside. In 1992, Nick Price captured his first major by winning the PGA Championship at Bellerive by shooting six-under 278 (championship par had been changed from 70 to 71). In 2004, the club was the site for the U.S. Senior Open, won by Peter Jacobsen at 12-under 272. In 2008, Bellerive hosted the BMW Championship as part of the FedEx Cup Playoffs; Camilo Villegas, from Columbia, recorded his first career tour victory, firing 15-under-par 265 (par again at 70). Prior to that 2008 event, the golf course had undergone a year-long renovation undertaken by Rees Jones, Trent’s son. With the help of his associate designer Bryce Swanson, Rees significantly rebuilt his father’s design while maintaining much of his style. Even more so than his dad had done, Rees made small targets within the large greens while maintaining the dramatic Trent Jones contours. His company also repositioned and rebuilt all fairway and greenside bunkers and tightened and re-graded most of the fairways, which dramatically improved the drainage. It was this “new” design that hosted the 2008 BMW Championship as an event of the FedEx Cup. In May 2013, Bellerive played host to the 74th Senior PGA Championship, which was won by 51-year-old veteran of the Japanese tour, Kōki Idoki. Playing the par-71 golf course at 11-under-par 273, Idoki won in his very first time to play professionally in the United States.

244    “not a single tree in Del Monte Forest could be removed”  See Neil Hoteling with Joann Dost, Pebble Beach: The Official Golf History (Chicago, IL: Triumph Books, 2009), and Roy A. March and the Editors of Golf Digest Books, A Paradise Called Pebble Beach (NY: Pocket, 1992).

245    “Morse accepted”  Joe Wilmot, “’Dream’ Links Set for Monterey,” San Francisco Chronicle, 19 July 1962, 41; Phil Norman, “$ Million Monterey Golf Deal,” San Francisco Examiner, 17 Mar. 1962, 39.

245    “Pebble Pines”  “Pebble Pines Undergoes Construction,” The Cleveland Press, 23 June 1964. The original agreement signed by Jones for the construction of what became the Spyglass Hill Golf Club specified the course as “Pebble Pines Golf Club.” On behalf of the golf club, the agreement was signed by Francis A. Watson, club president. The contract, dated 15 July 1964 can be found in the Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, JP, CUA.

246    “nothing further mentioned or said on my part”  RTJ to Richard Osborne, Del Monte Properties Company, Pebble Beach, CA., 23 Sept. 1964, Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, JP, CUA.

246    “This we want to avoid”  Francis A. Watson, President, Spyglass Hill Golf Club, 405 Montgomery St., San Francisco, CA, to RTJ, 173 Gates Ave., Montclair, NJ, 23 Sept. 1964, Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, JP, CUA. Jones went on to write: “The particular place where this golf course is located played a part in the colorful history of the Monterey area. Spyglass Hill commands a view of the ocean all the way across the bay to Santa Cruz. It is the highest point near Indian Village, and, undoubtedly, this hill provided a vantage point from which the Indians watched the Spanish galleons as they sailed into Monterey Bay. In the latter part of the 19th century, Robert Louis Stevenson spent a good deal of time wandering in the forests of this area. There is reason to believe that the high dunes of the Spyglass area were the inspiration for the ‘Spyglass Hill’ which played such a prominent part in Stevenson’s Treasure Island (ibid).”

247    “they will identify the course immediately”  Richard A. Osborne, President, Del Monte Properties Co., Pebble Beach, CA, to RTJ, 173 Gates Ave., Montclair, NJ, Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, 29 Sept. 1964.

247    “had our work cut out for us”  RTJ, “Just Me, Trent Jones,” p. 52.

247    “eliminating pine trees by the hundreds”  Frank Albert, Sales Representative, Del Monte Properties Co., Pebble Beach, CA, to Charter Member, Spyglass Hill Golf Club, Pebble Beach, CA, 25 Sept. 1964, copy in Spyglass Hills Golf Club Files, JP, CUA.

247    “adjustments to his plans after each phase”  Working along with Robert Trent Jones, Inc., on the construction of the Spyglass Hill golf course were CalGolf, Inc., Joseph Fratessa Construction, and Granite Construction. CalGolf Inc. was another one of Trent’s shadow companies, set up for carrying out West Coast construction projects by his son, Robert Trent Jones, Jr. The ostensible head of CalGolf, which had a Redwood City, CA, address barely five miles from Jones Jr.’s Palo Alto office, was John B. Dellis, a man who the Jones’s, father and son, had brought on to head up their West Coast construction projects. (Later, a second construction superintendent by the name of Homer Smith would head up another shadow construction company for the Jones’s on the West Coast.) The cost for all of the clearing and construction of the Spyglass Hill golf course was $487,927. An additional $122,000 was needed to cover maintenance, pro shop and parking, and engineering fees. This brought the total cost of the construction to $609,927.Within that total, $41,577 was needed for the clearing of the land, $140,000 for the installation of an automatic irrigation system,, $72,000 for earthmoving, $20,000 for drainage work, $20,000 for building dams and bridges, $15,000 for building five lakes and lining them to prevent seepage, $83,000 for greens, $28,000 for tees, and $44,000 for fairway development. Somewhere in the budget were the fees paid to O. J. Noer, one of the country’s leading soil scientists, for consulting on the development of the turf grass for the golf course. For many years, Noer (1890-1966) had served as the chief agronomist for the Milwaukee Sewage Commission, the company that produced Milorganite, which for decades was the fertilizer of choice for greenkeepers all across the United States. Incidentally, $625,000 of the cost of construction came from the 250 NCGA members who each put up $2,500 to become founding members of Spyglass..

248    “transformation from raw land to finished course”  RTJ, GMC, p.133, 136.

248    “deliberately reminiscent of Augusta National”  RTJ, GMC, p. 95.  Golf architect and course critic Tom Doak would later demean Spyglass Hill as being “sadly impaired by the sectionalization of the course”—for starting as a kind of homage to Pine Valley for the opening quintet of holes down in the dunes, but exhibiting a faux Augusta-style characterized by tall pines and cypress trees on the mostly uphill march away from the coastline. Doak admits that Jones may have had no alternative other than to design Spyglass Hill as he did: “Perhaps it was impossible to accomplish, but the course would certainly have had more continuity if the routing could have worked in and out of the trees to the sand dunes.” Doak, The Confidential Guide to Golf Courses, p. 217. It the opinion of this author (and also in the opinion of the golf architects to whom I have spoken about this matter) that the course routing of Spyglass Hill could have effectively gone from trees to dunes and back as Doak has suggested.

248  “such a variety in the character of the holes”  RTJ to AK, p. 2. Additionally, Jones felt that Spyglass Hill was blessed to occupy “terrain that lent itself ideally to design for every shot in the bag” (RTJ quoted in Omar Crane, Sports Editor, “Sport Thinks,” Fresno (CA) Bee, 20 Jan. 1967, 6C).   The course was “so spectacular and breathtaking that it made it tough to concentrate on your game amidst such splendor” (RTJ, “Just Me, Trent Jones,” p. 52).

248    “confused and lose patience”  RTJ to AK, p. 52.

248    “provided a detailed hole-by-hole description”  RTJ to AK, pp. 2-9.

248    “a work of art”  ibid., p. 3.

249    “and everybody loved it” ibid., pp. 3-4.

249    “a rebuttal to the contention”  For this defense of his father’s golf courses, see  RTJ Jr., Golf by Design: How to Lower Your Score by Reading the Features of a Course (Boston, and NY: Little, Brown and Co., 1993), p. 255.

250    “formidable seaside links”  Herb Graffis, “Swinging Around Golf: News of the Golf World in Brief, Golfdom: The Magazine of Golf Business (Sept. 1965): 3.  Inside the issue also was a lengthy feature story written by freelance California sportswriter Walter Roessing. Its subtitle declared, “It has inspired Robert Trent Jones and Robert Louis Stevenson, but it may cause frustrated golfers to throw themselves onto the rocks” (Roessing, “Spyglass Hill,” Golfdom (Sept. 1965): 24).  Bob Hanna, director of the Northern California Golf Association, told Roessing that “Jones is damn proud of this course. He proceeded with extreme care because the opportunity to acquire terrain like this for a championship golf course comes once in a lifetime” (Hanna quoted in ibid. 76).

250    “hitting the ceremonial first shot”  Morse Opens Newest Course: Tee-off at Spyglass,” Monterey Peninsula News, 11 Mar. 1966, 1.

250    “makes heavy demands on the golfer”  No golfer came near par either of the first two days of play, the article reported; the best score turned in was a six-over 78 by San Jose star Jack Bariteau, one of the best amateur players in California. (Nelson Cullenward, “Spyglass Course a Dazzler,” San Francisco Examiner, 12 Mar. 1966).  A fortnight after the course’s dedication, the San Jose Mercury News ran a multi-page well-illustrated feature entitled, “Spyglass Hill: A Golf Treasure,” which praised the design of the new golf course: “The master touch of golf architect Robert Trent Jones is evident everywhere” (Sunday Editor, “Spyglass Hill: A Golf Treasure,” San Jose Mercury News, 29 Mar. 1966, 15-16). The San Francisco Chronicle followed up on the course opening with a feature story by writer Art Rosenbaum that was especially pleasing to Jones because it explained how it was the “variety and strategy in the design of a golf course” that was “what really keeps ‘em coming back” (See RTJ Jr.’s letter to Art Rosenbaum, San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco, CA, 19 Oct. 1935, in Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, JP, CUA.

250    “starting out with a triple bogey”  James C. Anderson, “Spyglass Hill Course Rated with World’s Best,” Palo Alto Times, 15 Mar. 1966, 17.

250    “one of the three courses for the 1967 National Pro-Am”  “New Course for Crosby,” San Francisco Chronicle,” 22 June 1966.

251    “one full season is not enough to grow grass”  RTJ, GMC, p. 95.

251    “Certainly it cannot be wisely considered”  Robert T. Creasey, Executive Director, The Professional Golfers’ Association of America, National Headquarters, Palm Beach Garden, Box 12458, Lake Park, FL, to Mr. Larry Crosby, Chairman, Bing Crosby National Pro-Am, 780 North Gower, Hollywood, CA, copy in Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, JP, CUA. Larry Crosby was Bing’s brother.

251    “Our Manager of golf, Mr. Roger Larson”  A. G. Michaud, President, Del Monte Properties Co., to Mr. Robert T. Creasey, Executive Director, The Professional Golfers’ Assn. of America, Box 12458, Lake Park, FL, 28 Sept. 1966, copy in Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, JP, CUA.

251    “agreed to revisit in two weeks time”  Trent Jones, who was in Spain working on the Sotogrande Golf Club project in Cadiz at the time, heard about the PGA’s judgment about Spyglass and the Crosby from son Bob. “Jack Tuthill of the PGA came to Spyglass,” Bob related in a transatlantic cable, “and spent the morning looking over the course—he didn’t go around it with anyone…. Bing Crosby is very upset about this and wants to gather all the facts together before he does anything” (Eileen Vennell to RTJ, Re: Spyglass Hill and Bing Crosby Tournament,” 29 Sept. 1966, copy of cable in Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, JP, CUA. Ms. Vennell was a secretary for RTJ, Inc., in the Montclair office).  Quite upset over the news, Trent told Bob to get in touch with Bing Crosby and his brother Larry Crosby, who was serving as chairman of the Crosby National Pro-Am. This Bob quickly did, writing a letter to the Crosbys detailing what Robert Trent Jones, Inc., had discovered out about the situation:

 

                    After receiving a copy of the PGA’s letter indicating its stance on using Spyglass in the “Crosby,” we immediately began to                     remedy the situation. We first found out which of the PGA’s personnel visited Spyglass and the extent to which they went                         over it. (The fact that their people chose not to question any of us about the status of the course led to some                                                     misimpressions.) We then got Del Monte to agree to begin its clean-up and tree removal program immediately. I saw                                 during my visit last Wednesday that this program was underway. We have also arranged to have the PGA re-review the                           golf course in about two weeks. By that time the rough areas will have cleared out, and certain trees will have been                                   removed. Also some of our as well as Spyglass’ personnel will accompany them to answer any questions that might come                       to them. I have played the course myself several times

                    and find it to be in fine shape. Furthermore, the general layout, green elevations and contours will—with proper                                           maintenance—result in one of the least wet courses this winter.

 

Jones Jr. summed up the situation for Bing and his brother: “Hence, I think we will find no reluctance on the part of the PGA to approve the course for the tournament, since we will have remedied any conceivable defects by the time of their next visit” (RTJ Jr., Robert Trent Jones, Inc, 260 Bryant St., Palo Alto, CA, to Messrs. Bing and Larry Crosby, Bing Crosby National Pro-Am, 780 North Gower, Hollywood, CA, 10 Oct. 1966, copy in Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, JP, CUA.

251    “repeated the rumor”  “Tourney Notes,” Golf World, 18 Nov. 1966.

251    “a sharp clash”  Dave Lewis, Sports Editor, “The Clambake—A Classic,” Long Beach (CA) Independent, 19 Jan. 1967.

252    “won’t be the fault of the course”  S.F.B. Morse, Chairman of the Board, Del Monte Properties Co., Pebble Beach, CA, to Mr. Larry Crosby, Chairman, Bing Crosby National Pro-Am, 780 North Gower, Hollywood, CA, 29 Sept. 1966, copy in Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, JP, CUA. Privately, Bob Jones, Jr., believed that Jack Tuthill was “scared the pros wouldn’t score like pros,” leaving their play to “hurt their public image” (RTJ Jr., Robert Trent Jones, Inc, 260 Bryant St., Palo Alto, CA, to Mr. Frank Fehse, Mission Viejo Co., 4500 Campus Dr., Newport Beach, CA, 9 Nov. 1966, copy in Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, JP, CUA).  Also unsympathetic to the lot of the pros was USGA executive director, Joe Dey, Trent’s long-time friend and partner in crime when it came to setting up difficult U.S. Opens.  Dey told reporters that if Spyglass were ever to be used for a national championship, he would want par to be dropped from par 72 to par 70 by trimming some “minuscule yardage” from a couple of Spyglass’s par-5s, turning them into long par-4s.  See Jack Hanley, “Unsympathetic Dey: USGA Boss Would Make Spy Tougher,” San Mateo (CA) Times; Hanley, “Spyglass Hill Golf Course Has Own Charm,” Alameda (CA) Times Star. The same articles, with different headlines, were both published on 20 Jan. 1967.

252    “Pretty But Deadly Spyglass”  “Pretty But Deadly Spyglass Hill,” caption to photo, Monterey Peninsula Herald, 19 Jan. 1967.

252    “pro Billy Casper was quoted”  Billy Casper quoted in UPI story, “Palmer Has His Revenge,” 17 Jan. 1977.

252    “not playable for the majority of golfers”  Arnold Palmer quoted in UPI story, “Palmer Has His Revenge,” 17 Jan. 1977. Palmer also criticized the trends towards long courses in Bill Shirley, “Long Courses Bring Blast from Palmer,” Los Angeles Times, 13 Nov. 1966.

252    “I could barely find the tee”  Doug Ford quoted in Lincoln A. Werden, Special to the New York Times, “Nicklaus Breaks Par On New Links,” New York Times, 19 Jan. 1967.

253    “Ray Charles could have done a better job”  Lee Trevino quoted in Omer Crane, Sport Editor, “Sport Thinks,” Fresno Bee, 20 Jan. 1967, 6C. One of the amateurs in the Crosby event, Los Angeles Dodger ace pitcher Sandy Koufax, quipped after playing his first round at Spyglass: “It is a great place. I hope they build a golf course here some day.” In one stretch of seven holes, Koufax had lost seven balls. Another one of the amateurs, a prominent businessman from Fresno, fumed, “What in the hell is Jones trying to prove? Are we supposed to have fun playing the game? This is sheer torture.” Ibid.

253    “The first five holes will kill you!”  Dutch Harrison quoted in “First Five Holes Will Kill You!” caption to picture in San Francisco Examiner, 18 Jan. 1967, and Jack Murphy, “Bing Adds To Golf Folklore With New Links—Spyglass Hill,” The San Diego Union, 19 Jan. 1967.

253    “There’s no grass on them”  Bud Hoelscher quoted in Jack Murphy, “Bing Adds To Golf Folklore With New Links—Spyglass Hill,” The San Diego Union, 19 Jan. 1967.

253    “contour of the greens is too severe”  Jack Tuthill quoted in “Spyglass Spat,” Golf World, 10 Feb. 1967.

253    “nobody will make a putt”  Billy Casper quotes in Roger Williams, “Winning Score? Casper Won’t Guess,” San Francisco Examiner, 19 Jan. 1967, 43, and Jack Murphy, “Bing Adds To Golf Folklore With New Links—Spyglass Hill,” The San Diego Union, 19 Jan. 1967.

253    “Playing Spyglass Hill is Anything But Fun”  “Playing Spyglass Hill Is Anything But Fun,” Turlock (CA) Journal, UPI story, 19 Jan. 1967.

253    “persisted in defending the use of the golf course”  Bill Shirley, “Crosby Extols Spyglass Course,” Los Angeles Times, 19 Jan. 1967.

253    “pick up their ball”  Nelson Cullenward, “Bing Warns Amateurs: Crosby Duffers Have to Hustle,” Special Edition, Monterey Peninsula News, 18 Jan. 1967.

253    “he can’t break 72 from the tiger tees”  Bing Crosby quoted in Bill Shirley, “Crosby Extols Spyglass Course,” Los Angeles Times, 19 Jan. 1967. See also Lincoln A. Werden, Special to the New York Times, “Nicklaus Breaks Par On New Links,” New York Times, 19 Jan. 1967.

253    “won the bet in his second practice round”  Nicklaus breaking 72 in his second practice round led one San Francisco sports writer to pronounce, in a column “How to Beat the Monster,” that “No course is untamable when the right people are playing it” and for Nicklaus himself to comment, “After all, the guys who play in this tournament could break par in the middle of the ocean. . . . I don’t think the course is too long from the back tees. It’s not that much of a monster but it’s a very difficult course. The course is in marvelous condition for as young as it is. It would have be one of the three used in this tournament. It was a wise choice to use this one.” Prescott Sullivan, “How to Beat the Monster,” San Francisco Examiner, 19 Jan. 1967, 41; Jack Nicklaus quoted in Roger Williams, “Winning Score? Casper Won’t Guess,” San Francisco Examiner, 19 Jan. 1967, 43, and in “Can Crosby Pros Handle Spyglass?” 19 Jan. 1967, Newark (NJ) Evening News, UPI story, 19 Jan. 1967. See also “Nicklaus Wins Wager: Spyglass Still Tough,” Roseville (CA) Press Tribune, UPI story, 18 Jan. 1967.

254    “as it lies”  Art Spander, “Spyglass ‘Tiger Tees’ for Crosby,” San Francisco Chronicle, 18 Jan. 1967, 57. Some players including Arnold Palmer did not like the decision to play winter rules because it “made the tournament anything but a true test” (“Many Pros Take Favorable View of Spyglass Hill Links—But Some Think Layout on Coast Is Too Tough,” New York Times, AP story, 22 Jan. 1967).

254    “had the best of it”  So unexpectedly solid was the opening round scoring at Spyglass that one headline the next morning read “Monster Tumbles in Crosby Meet.”[i] Leading the tournament was 39-year-old Massachusetts pro Joe Carr, carding a 68 at Cypress Point; Nicklaus was one behind after a 69 at Pebble Beach. See “Monster Tumbles in Crosby Meet,” Fort Lauderdale (FL) News, 20 Jan. 1967, 5D.

254    “doubted it had much future”  Massengale quoted in “Many Pros Take Favorable View of Spyglass Hill Links—But Some Think Layout on Coast Is Too Tough,” New York Times, AP story, 22 Jan. 1967.

255    “wish Mr. Jones would name one”  Jack Tuthill and RTJ Sr., quoted in Lincoln A. Werden, Special to the New York Times, “Nicklaus Breaks Par On New Links,” New York Times, 19 Jan. 1967.

256    “Tricky Monstrosity”  “’Tricky Monstrosity’ Or A Competitive Gem?” San Jose (CA) Mercury News, 22 Jan. 1967.

256    “seriously doubt the course will be approved”  Bing Crosby quoted in Ed Schoenfeld, “Big Changes Ahead for Crosby, Lucky,” San Jose Mercury News, 16 June 1967.

258    “from the highest yardarm in the Dry Tortugas!”  To lovers of golf who suffered the complaints of such spoiled golf professionals, Los Angeles sportswriter Jim Murray shouted in his best “pirate prose,” as if was sentencing the likes of pros Claude Harmon, Doug Ford, Dave Marr, and the others to walk the gang-plank: “And pay no attention to their cryin’. They’d clobber you with a 65 while the tears were streaming down their cheeks. Hand me my glass, mates, I want to watch these scores go up in flames! Fill your coffers with 80s and 90s, and I’ll stand the rum around for all hands when the last double-bogey is stored in the hole!” Jim Murray, “Spyglass: An Ambush,” Los Angeles Times, 22 Jan. 1967, C1-C2.

258    “his blast at the pros”  See Joe Schwendeman, “’Golfers My Biggest Critics’,” The Evening Bulletin (Philadelphia, PA), 21 Feb. 1967.

259    “Dad stirred up a lot of controversy”  RLJ, Montclair, NJ, to author, telephone interview, 15 Mar. 2008.

259    “Dean Martin”  Dudley Wysong and Dean Martin quoted in Art Spander, “Spyglass in For ‘Repairs’,” San Francisco Chronicle, 29 Feb. 1968.

259    “You can’t putt those greens” Jack Nicklaus quoted in Art Spander, “Spyglass in For ‘Repairs’,” San Francisco Chronicle, 29 Feb. 1968.

259    “You couldn’t print it”  Johnny Pott quoted in “Par on the 19th Hole,” Golf World, 16 Feb. 1968.

259    “particularly now that Nicklaus had announced”  Kevin Walsh, “Nicklaus Tells Why He, Palmer, Intend To Design Golf Courses,” Boston Globe (evening), 24 Aug. 1965.

260    “On great courses, yes”  RTJ Sr. quotes from “Golf Architect Blasts Crybaby Touring Pros,” Washington (DC) Evening Star, 26 Jan. 1968. In 1965 Jack Nicklaus won his second of six Masters titles with a dramatic 7-under 65 in the final round. His first win at Augusta came in 1963. He also won in 1966, 1972, 1975, and, memorably at age 46, in 1986. Although Nicklaus has written a fine autobiography, Jack Nicklaus: My Story (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1997), co-authored by Ken Bowden, a critical scholarly biography should be written to flesh out all of the meaningful details and historical significance of his life in golf. The same is true for Arnold Palmer. Autobiographies are nice and important to have, but they never tell the whole unvarnished story.

260    “we’re seeing under conditions today”  For Trent Jones, the very low scores being posted by the pros by 1967 were “like somebody breaking Babe Ruth’s home run record on a softball diamond” (RTJ Sr. quoted in “Golf Architect Blasts Crybaby Touring Pros,” Washington (DC) Evening Star, 26 Jan. 1968). In different headlined versions of the same story, Jones’s biting comments showed up in dozens of newspapers across the country under such titles as “Golf Architect Takes A Dig at Pros: Softies” (Long Island [NY] Sun Journal), “Golf Pros Criticized by Designer” (Chicago Tribune), and “Robert T. Jones Tees Off On The ‘Carping’ Pros” (Oneonta [NY] Star.)

260    “Al Geiberger”  Al Geiberger would also partner with fellow pro Dave Stockton to win two of the first three CBS Golf Classics in 1968 and 1969, a popular weekly (taped) best-ball TV event played from 1967 to 1976 at Firestone.

260     “Sherman marched through Georgia”  Anonymous PGA pro quoted in Bill Shirley, “Architects’s Links, Remarks Irk Pros,” Los Angeles Times, 27 Jan. 1968.

260    “spectators want to see them broken”  “Par on the 19th Hole,” Golf World, 16 Feb. 1968. Still smarting from the Crosby’s decision to include Spyglass Hill in the first place back in 1967, and wanting to back-up his pros, Jack Tuthill rejoined the controversy. “They are far from being soft,” scolded Tuthill. “Golf is the most taxing sport there is. There is no place to let off steam like there is is football and other sports. And you get no help from others.” As for the verbal blasts taken at Spyglass’s expense, “The players have a legitimate beef. It may be playable in the summer,” said Tuthill, “but they have to do a lot more things there than they’ve done to make it playable in January” (Jack Tuthill quoted in Bill Shirley, “Architects’s Links, Remarks Irk Pros,” Los Angeles Times, 27 Jan. 1968).  If Jones went too far in his defense of his golf course, the PGA tournament director had gone even farther in his attack. According to one newspaper account, just prior to the ’67 Crosby, a disturbed Tuthill went right up to Jones and in his face told him, “It’s the worst golf course in the world.” Needless to say, Jones was “indignant.” “Then name a worse one,” Tuthill challenged. “I understand some changes to the course are planned. But if the course is as great as you say it is, why should changes be necessary?” Jack Tuthill quoted in Francis Stann, “Pro Golfers Get Rise from Course Architect,” The Sunday Star (Washington, DC), 28 Jan. 1968.

261    “brought the putting surface into that area”  Trent Jones would assert: “Now even from the back tees”—the hole played from 137 to 175 yards depending on the tee—“no one can argue it’s unfair. It is now a superb golf hole, probably one of the top par threes anywhere” (RTJ Sr. quoted in Art Spander, “A Big Break on Spyglass’ 5th,” San Francisco Chronicle, 14 July 1967. The phrase about the green resting “in a Sahara of sand” is from Sander). 

261    “The good press on this change”  RTJ Sr. to Mr. Aime Michaud, Del Monte Properties, Monterey, CA, 17 July 1967, Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, JP, CUA.

261    “thinned some of the trees around the 14th green”  Roger Larson, Superintendent, Del Monte Lodge, Pebble Beach, CA, to RTJ, P.O. Box 304, Montclair, NJ, 2 Feb. 1967, Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, JP, CUA.

261    “The holes in the forest at Cypress Point”  Alister MacKenzie’s 10th “General Principle” (The Spirit of St. Andrews, p. 42) stated: “There should be a complete absence of the annoyance and irritation caused by the necessity of searching for lost balls.” In making his case to Del Monte president Aime Michaud that Spyglass needed to clean up the underbrush edging its fairways, Trent Jones did not make reference to MacKenzie’s principle, though clearly he agreed with it and would have been well aware of it from the time back in the mid-1930s when he was in charge of trying to get Dr. MacKenzie’s manuscript published.

261    “will give us the final ammunition”  Del Monte president Michaud answered Jones that “it is unfair to compare roughs at Spyglass and those of Cypress Point, considering the time the two Clubs have been in operation.” A. H. Michaud, President, Del Monte Properties, Co., to RTJ, P.O. Box 304, Montclair, NJ, 25 July 1968, Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, JP, CUA.

261    “And that’s when the Crosby is played”  RTJ Jr. quoted in Art Spander, “Spyglass in for ‘Repairs’,” San Francisco Chronicle, 29 Feb. 1968. Spyglass’s irrigation system was a major bone of contention between Jones’s firm and Spyglass Golf Club, with many letters being sent back and forth and several meetings about it taking place before the irrigation was fixed to everyone’s satisfaction. The club felt that Jones’s firm must not have designed the irrigation system properly. To that accusation, Bob Jr. answered back to Francis A. Watson, Spyglass’s president: “While recognizing the difficulty with respect to the wet and dry spots as Spyglass, as we always have, we reject categorically the premise these are a result of improper design of the irrigation system. The system was designed to deliver water throughout the golf course which it does. The same exact components are in use at several golf courses throughout the world. These systems operate within the entire range of climates and soil types. From the beginning our single objective was to see the realization of Spyglass as one of the great courses of the world. The world wide public acclaim has fulfilled this expectation. In this spirit we have continued to offer our help in every respect during the almost two years since the course has opened. Unfortunately our advice has not always been acted upon. We believe that the dry spot problem would have been largely eliminated by now if this advice had been followed. We still believe it can be remedied through a combination of factors largely concerned with general maintenance practices. On several occasions we have discussed these recommendations with those in charge of the course maintenance. . . . As always are sole objective is to cooperate with all those who share our attitude that the greatness of Spyglass comes first.” Robert Trent Jones, Jr., Robert Trent Jones, Inc., 360 Bryant St., Palo Alto, CA, to Mr. Francis A. Watson, President, Spyglass Hill Golf Club, P. O. Box 1157, Pebble Beach, CA, 15 Dec. 1967, Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, JP, CUA. Subsequent to this letter, several meetings took place to remedy the irrigation and drainage problems; however, the great part of this work had to wait until after the 1968 Crosby Invitational. A concise summary of what was done to fix the problems can be found in Max A. Brown, Ph.D., Agronomist, to RTJ, Robert Trent Jones, Jr., and Roger Larson, “Spyglass Hill Golf Course—Visit of August 7, 1968,” 11 Sept. 1968, Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, JP, CUA. Brought in on a consulting basis to look at Spyglass Hill’s irrigation problems, Max A. Brown had founded a company called Liquid Ag Systems, Inc., based in Fort Myers, FL. He held a doctorate (1964) in soil science from the University of Florida. Most likely, Dr. Brown was brought in to consult at Spyglass upon the recommendation of Jones’s firm.

261    “made the greens on those holes slightly easier”  The 6th hole played uphill to 446 yards, while the #8 hole played steeply uphill to 399 yards. Spyglass members deemed the 8th “the longest hole under 400 yards in the world.”

261    “Jones endorsed the decision not to use Spyglass that year”  “Spyglass Won’t Be Used at Crosby,” San Francisco Chronicle, 29 Dec. 1976, 32. A letter from Robert Trent Jones, Inc., signed by West Coast employee John A. McPherson, to Tom Oliver, Del Monte Properties, Del Monte Lodge, Pebble Beach, CA, 30 Dec. 1976 (Spyglass Hill Golf Club Files, JP, CUA), explained the agronomic situation at Spyglass due to the drought and pesticide misuse.

          In October of the year following the decision not to use Spyglass in 1976, Bing Crosby died of a heart attack.  He died right as he was finishing a round of golf at La Morajela Golf Club, a new Desmond Muirhead/Jack Nicklaus design just outside Madrid, Spain.  Allegedly, his last words before fatally collapsing on the 18th green were “That was a great game of golf, fellows.” After his death, the Crosby tournament was hosted for a number of years by his family. The Crosby name was dropped after the 1985 event, with the AT&T Corporation then becoming the title sponsor. Bing’s youngest son from his second marriage, Nathaniel Crosby, won the 1981 U.S. Amateur, played at The Olympic Club. At the time that made the 19-year-old the youngest-ever winner of the event.

263    “Heffelfinger decided to proceed”  RTJ Sr. to AK, p. 73.

264    “Heffelfinger liked the idea”  ibid.

265    “would not have gotten more than a passing glance as a possible U.S. Open site”  It also did not hurt Hazeltine National’s chance for a U.S. Open that Tot Heffelfinger and Hazeltine were quite progressive when it came to civil rights. One of Tot’s teammates on his Yale football squad back in the late Forties was a halfback by the name of Levi A. Jackson, who was African-American. In 1949 Jackson became the first black to captain a Yale football team—or to captain any sports team at Yale. At a time when nearly all private golf clubs in America were still segregated racially (with most also excluding people of the Jewish faith as well as women), Heffelfinger was one of the first owners of a private club to accept an African-American as members.[ii] Trent Jones, who was not at heart progressive on racial or ethnic matters, recalled the story of the first black member at Hazeltine: “One of the major companies of the country with strong business connections in the Twin Cities sent out a black man to Hazeltine. The company had bought a corporate membership and it wanted this man to play. Heffelfinger said, ‘Fine, let’s meet him,” and Tot said to me, ‘He’s a gentleman, and he wants to play golf. I think we should let him play golf.” As Jones recollected, “We were probably the first in the country to take a black member into a big club” (RTJ to Kendrick, p. 73-74).

          Certainly, in comparison to every other private golf club in America, Hazeltine was “somewhat radical” (Jay Weiner, “PGA Championship: Politics, culture, economics and Tiger, oh my,” MINNPOST, 11 Aug. 2009, accessed on June 18, 2013, at http://www.minnpost.com/politics-policy/2009/08/pga-championship-politics-culture-economics-and-tiger-oh-my#.Ucdv2ZlwSCk.email).  Besides being one of the very first private clubs to admit an African-American, Hazeltine in 1960 also admitted a Jewish member—Twin Cities liquor distributor and philanthropist Jay Phillips; the club even put him on its board of directors. It was not that Minneapolis and St. Paul were more liberal in their social attitudes; both cities held strong strains of anti-Semitism and racism. Early Hazeltine board member Bob Fischer, a longtime Twin Cities banker who died in 2008, remembered: “I heard from friends—ex-friends now—who said we were going to ruin the town.  But Tot Heffelfinger and the rest of us thought it was a good idea. We did it consciously. We talked about membership and decided all you had to be was a golfer and honor the tradition of the game. Yes, you had to be a gentleman” (Quoted in Weiner, “PGA Championship,” p. 2). Hazeltine, when it opened for play in 1962, also showed itself as forward-looking on the gender-equity front. The club allowed women to be voting members, with women by 1976 joining the ruling board.  In the 1980s, when most country clubs began debating whether women should have equal access to tee times, Hazeltine lifted such restrictions “without rancor” (Weiner, “PGA Championship,” p. 2). Some have said that Hazeltine’s legacy in civil rights has been “noble,” and in comparison to most of America’s private golf clubs, it has been that. But it must also be said that it took special circumstances, besides the leadership of Tot Heffelfinger, to make it happen. At Hazeltine, there was no swimming pool. There were no tennis courts. Hazeltine was all about golf. This focus made it easier to integrate a club than if it had possessed all the social amenities. In an era when civil rights became an issue of national urgency and private clubs of all kinds began to get tighter scrutiny and increased criticism for their restrictive membership policies, there can be no question that the USGA’s decision to give Hazeltine a U.S. Open had something to do with the club’s progressive nature. It must be said, however, that progress was slow: a snapshot of Hazeltine’s membership in the year 1991 still showed only one African-American: a Minneapolis attorney by the name of F. Clayton Tyler. It must also be said that, although Robert Trent Jones Sr. very much liked Tot Heffelfinger and spoke in his later years in admiration of Hazeltine’s openness to all “gentlemen and ladies” who loved and respected golf, over the entirety of Jones’s career in golf course architecture he never once had a problem doing business with clubs tightly restrictive in their membership policies; if he had been, he would have lost many, many jobs. In his pragmatic approach to bigotry, unfortunately, Trent Jones was hardly alone. Not a single golf architect known to the history of American golf architecture turned down a job because it was for an exclusionary private club.

          NOTE: For analysis of the issue of bias, exclusion, and limited access in American’s golf and country clubs, see Richard J. Moss, Golf and the American Country Club (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2001), especially Chap. 7, “An Endangered Species.” On p.158 of that chapter, the author discusses a New York Times survey of area clubs and their admission policies. According to Richard J. Moss, “None of the clubs in the survey had even one African American member, and only a few clubs reported that they had admitted Jews. Attention focused on the Winged Foot Golf Club because it had just hosted the U.S. Open Championship in June 1959. Winged Foot, its manager Thomas Farley reported, had no Negro or Jewish members, but the club maintained no restrictions on membership. Farley explained the traditional membership rules: an applicant was proposed by another member and seconded by an additional member, after which followed letters of recommendation, approval by the admission committee, and finally approval by the board of directors. The implication was clear. Given these rules, no overt exclusionary rule need be written.” Richard J. Moss’s book makes no reference to Hazeltine National Golf Club.

          ALSO NOTE: Relatively speaking, the USGA had a better record on issues related to equality and civil rights than did the PGA, but that is not saying much. In 1896, a 17-year-old by the name of John Shippen, whose father was African-American and whose mother was a Native American from the Shinnecock tribe, played in the second U.S. Open at Shinnecock Hills, where Shippen worked as a caddie. Some of the professional players threatened to boycott the event when they discovered young Shippen’s race but backed down when USGA President Theodore Havemayer defended Shippen and another entrant, Oscar Bunn, also a Shinnecock. Shippen tied for sixth, won $10, and went on to play in five more U.S. Opens. It took nearly 50 years for another African-American to play in an Open. In 1948, 34-year old Theodore “Ted” Rhodes, a World War II veteran, played in national championship at Riviera Country Club. He learned the game during boyhood in Nashville, Tennessee, by caddying at Belle Meade and Richland country clubs (both Ross courses). After the war, Rhodes met black entertainer Bill Eckstein and heavyweight boxing champion Joe Lewis, andtaught both men to play golf. He was under the mentorship of Los Angeles golf pro Ray Mangrum, brother of 1946 U.S. Open champion Lloyd Mangrum, when he decided to enter the ’48 Open, an application that the USGA accepted. He made the cut with rounds of 71 and 76 but finished out of the money. Based on his play in the Open, Rhodes along with fellow African-American golfer Bill Spiller tried to enter PGA tournaments in the late 1940s and throughout the 1950s but time-and-time-again was turned away due to a clause in the charter of the PGA of America stating that the PGA was for Caucasians only. Rhodes’s only option was to play events sponsored by the United Golfers Association, which was organized in the 1920s for black golfers; over the course of his career, Rhodes won some 150 UGA events. In 1960 he and Spiller sued the PGA of America over its “Caucasian-only clause.” The PGA agreed to an out-of-court settlement knowing that its event sponsors could circumvent the agreement—which many event sponsors immediately did—by changing their tournaments to “invitationals” and inviting only whites to participate. A very strong case could be made for Ted Rhodes (1913-1969) to be elected a member of the World Golf Hall of Fame. The third African-American to play in a U.S. Open was Charlie Sifford (b. 1922), who tied for 32nd in the 1959 at Winged Foot. Sifford also played in the 1960, 1962, 1964, 1965, and 1968 U.S. Opens. He did not qualify to play at Hazeltine in 1970. Sifford was the first African American to play a PGA event, at the Greater Greensboro Open just a few months after the PGA “lifted” its “non-Caucasian clause.” In 1975 Sifford became the first African American to win a PGA Tour event, the Greater Hartford Open. The PGA Tour’s other prominent African-American player of the 1960s and 1970s was Lee Elder (b. 1934), who began playing U.S. Opens in 1966. Elder did play in the 1970 Open at Hazeltine but he failed to make the 36-hole cut. In 1975 Elder became the first black golfer to play in the Masters tournament. In 1956, Ann Gregory (1914-1991) became the first African-American woman to play in a national championship conducted by the USGA, as she compete in the U.S. Women's Amateur played that year at Meridian Hills Country Club in Indianapolis. Gregory won five UGA National Open Women’s Championships (1950, ’53, ’57, ’65, and ’66). The first black woman to play in the LPGA, in 1964, was Althea Gibson (1927-2003), better known for her tennis stardom. Gibson never won an LPGA event but she finished in the top 50 money winnings for five straight years. For a history of African-American women in American golf, see M. Mikell Johnson, The African American Woman: Her Legacy (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2008).

          It should be noted finally  that a few of America’s golf courses were, in fact, designed by African-Americans—a fact that is not known by many golf historians and students of golf course architecture. In 1922, Joseph Bartholomew began what truly was a career as a golf course architect by creating a course at Metairie Golf Club in his native New Orleans. In a way similar to the life of Robert Trent Jones, Sr., a wealthy member of Audobon Golf Course, where “Joe” had been caddying since age seven, sent him in 1920 to New York to attain knowledge and experience in golf course architecture. When he returned to New Orleans two years later, he designed the course at Metairie. Due to the club’s segregation policy, Bartholomew (1885-1971) was never allowed to play the course or even practice there. He went on to lay out several public courses in the New Orleans area, City Park No. 1, City Park No. 2, and Pontchartrain Park; he was not allowed to play any of them either, not until many years had passed. On property that Bartholomew himself came to own in the suburb of Harahan, he built a seven-hole course that he could play in the company of his friends.  Bartholomew later started a construction company to help build the golf courses he designed, even expanded his business into general landscaping. As the years went by, he became a relatively wealthy man, derived largely from successful real estate investments. He made significant financial contributions to Dillard and Xavier universities, which endeared him to the academic community in New Orleans. For a short biographical sketch, see “Joe Bartholomew: Artist of the Links,” African American Registry, accessed June 18, 2013, at http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/joe-bartholomew-artist-links. There is no question but that Joe Bartholomew deserves some special recognition by the American Society of Golf Course Architects, an organization to which he could never belong because of his skin color. Another African American who built a golf course—only one but any golf course built by an African American in the U.S. is significant—was William Powell. He built his in 1946 in his hometown of East Canton, OH. A veteran of the U.S. Army Air Corps, William Powell (1917-2010) applied for a G.I. loan for his plan to build a golf course; when it was denied, Powell secured funding from two local African-American physicians and from his brother who took out a second mortgage on his home. Powell, literally, built the 9-hole Clearview Golf Club with his own hands. It opened for public play in 1948. Sixty-one years later, in 2009, the PGA of America, during the 91st PGA Championship that was, fittingly, being played at Hazeltine National, bestowed its highest honor, the Distinguished Service Medal, on Powell. On Powell’s life in golf, see Richard Goldstein, “African-American Golf Pioneer Bill Powell Dies at 93,” New York Times, 1 Jan. 2010, accessed on June 18, 2013, at http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/02/sports/golf/02powell.html?_r=0. Powell also deserves some recognition from the American Society of Golf Course Architects for becoming the first and only African-American to build, own, and operate a golf course. Another golf course with great significance in the history of American golf is Langston Golf Course, which was commissioned by the Department of the Interior in 1938 to accommodate African American golf in the District of Columbia. The golf course was named for John Mercer Langston (1829-1897), an abolitionist and first dean of the Howard University Law School. The golf course still operates under the same name today, and in 2013 was inducted into the Black Golf Hall of Fame. The Wake-Robin Golf Club, the first African-American women’s golf club in the U.S., founded in 1936, began playing its golf at Langston when the course opened in 1939. It is not known who laid out the original nine. Architect William F. Gordon, a charter member of the ASGCA, added the second nine at Langston the same year he was ASGCA president, 1953. It is a well laid out and challenging golf course playing 6,652 yards. For the story of Langston Golf Course, see Stacy M. Brown, “Langston Golf Course Celebrates Its Heritage: Historic African-American Facility Inducted into Black Golf Hall of Fame,” The Washington Informer, 6-12 June 2013, p. 27. Today, the only African-American in the profession of golf course architecture in the U.S. is Brandon A. Johnson, holder of a master’s degree in landscape architecture from the Harvard Graduate School of Design, who works as Senior Golf Course Architect for Arnold Palmer Design. Johnson has not yet been given membership in the ASGCA because he has not had enough solo or primary projects of new courses under his name to apply. Sometime soon, he surely will, and there can be no question but that today’s ASGCA very much wants him to qualify.

265    “devoured most of the players”  For a preview of the Hazeltine National golf course on the eve of the 1966 U.S. Women’s Open, see Joseph C. Dey, Jr., “A New Championship Course,” USGA Journal (June 1966): 14-15.

265    “would not do their tour any good”  See Liz Kahn, The LPGA: The History of the Ladies Professional Golf Association; The Unauthorized Version (Menlo Park, CA: Group Fore Productions, 1996).

265    “men’s Open would come to Hazeltine three years hence”  The USGA had been seriously discussing the possibility of bringing the U.S Open to Hazeltine National as early as the summer of 1965. See Bob Fowler, “Hazeltine ‘Casts Dey’ in U.S. Open Bid,” Minneapolis Tribune (23 July 1965): 18. In the article, USGA president Joe Dey called Hazeltine “a fine course. . . . It’s truly a championship course, suitable for practically any type of tournament. . . . But what I really like is it’s a typical Jones course. It’s long, but not too long. It favors only the golfer who can precisely place every shot, which, after all, is what the game is all about.”

266    “adversely affecting four holes”  RTJ, GMC, p. 95.

266    “’only’ 7,234 yards”  James E. Kelley, Minnesota Golf: 75 Years of Tournament History (Minneapolis: Minnesota Golf Association, 1976), p. 286, accessed on 19 June 2013 at http://www.mngolf.org/uploads/75years_searchable.pdf.

266    “never did, play championship golf”  Ken Venturi quoted in Golf Digest, Oct. 1967. Untitled clipping in the Hazeltine National Golf Club Files, JP, CUA.

266    “the Pope is a possum”  Billy Casper and Lee Trevino quoted in Ron Maly, “It’s Either Field of Corn . . . or Fit for King,” Des Moines Register, 27 Sept. 1970.

267    “aim at a chimney on someone’s house”  Robert Sommers, The U.S. Open, p. 238.

267    “write a ‘bad’ story”  RTJ, GMC, p. 95; RTJ Sr. quote about Nicklaus being “an architect himself” comes from Ron Maly, “It’s Either Field of Corn . . . or Fit for King,” Des Moines Register, 27 Sept. 1970.

267    “A glob landed”  Sommers, The U.S. Open, p. 239.

268    “played it accordingly”  Jack Nicklaus with Ken Bowden, Jack Nicklaus: My Story (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1997), p. 223.

268    “If I’ve got to come back here tomorrow”  Frank Hannigan story told in Ron Whitten, “Growing Pains: The 1970 U.S. Open,” Golf Digest, Aug. 2009, accessed on 18 June 2013, at Read More http://www.golfdigest.com/magazine/2009-08/hazeltine_ron_whitten#ixzz2Wt6b0JCi.

268    “did not sit well with the USGA”  RTJ, GMC, p. 95.

268    “just for the privilege of voicing his opinions”  See Tony Jacklin with Curtiss Gillespie, Jacklin: My Autobiography (London, Sydney, and New York: Simon & Schuster UK Ltd., 2006), p. 152.

268    “Not that different from links golf”  Jacklin, Jacklin: My Autobiography, pp. 148-49. The author would like to thank Mr. Jacklin for the interview he granted with me on 15 Aug. 2013 in Bradenton, FL.

269    “might have even tossed in a ‘Moo’”  Jacklin: My Autobiography, p. 148 and 153.

269    “reached with a drive and a swizzle stick”  Dan Jenkins quoted in Jacklin: My Autobiography, p. 152.

269    “all playing the same course”  In contrast to the acerbic criticisms of the Hazeltine golf course by Dave Hill, there were the polite comments of 18-year-old Ben Crenshaw, who would not turn pro until 1973 (after winning more than a dozen amateur titles including three straight NCAA championships with the University of Texas) and, who, though had to play himself into the Open through stressful qualification rounds, brought the grace and manners he had learned at the feet of Harvey Penick to Hazeltine.  Every comment Crenshaw made about Hazeltine before, during, and after tournament was positive. It wasn’t Ben’s first professional tournament but it was his first Open and he loved the entire experience. Of course, the fact that he stood in ninth place after two rounds (with scores of 75 and 73) didn’t hurt. But in contrast to Hill, a hardscrabble pro, Crenshaw looked and acted like a pure young gentleman, which is exactly what he was. Young, blonde and handsome (a look Minnesotans were used to compared to Dave Hill’s swarthier, dark appearance), Ben talked to the press about his wonderful week with his dad who was visiting there with him. Father and son went out to see a Minnesota Twins game and with the press Ben shared his delight in seeing Harmon “Killer” Killebrew hit a home run. At the end of the week Crenshaw finished in a tie for low amateur with John Mahaffey at 301, 13 over.[iii] Just as importantly, Crenshaw made many thousands of Minnesotans, and millions of television viewers, into great fans of the future “Gentle Ben.” His genteel nature made Hill’s acerbic character look that much worse, even though Hill was an accomplished professional golfer. On Crenshaw at Hazeltine in 1970, see Dave Senko, “Champion Tour Players reflect on their first U.S.Open experiences,” 12 June 2013, accessed on 25 June 2013 at http://www.pgatour.com/champions/news/2013/06/12/reflecting-on-first-us-open-experience.html.

270    “But, man, when they wrote it up!”  Dave Hill quoted in Whitten, “Growing Pains: The 1970 U.S. Open,” Golf Digest, Aug. 2009, accessed on 18 June 2013, at http://www.golfdigest.com/magazine/2009-08/hazeltine_ron_whitten#ixzz2Wt6b0JCi.

270    “going to drive the tractor”  For a telling of the story about Dave Hill and the tractor, see Nick Seitz, Teed Off (NY: Prentice-Hall, 1977), p. 108.

270    “did some damage to the club’s reputation”  Dick Slay, “Hill Always in Form,” Washington (DC) Star News, 26 May 1974.

270    “You can quote me on it”  “The Odd Couple,” Golf World (8 Nov. 1978): 6. Joe Dey was also present for Dave Hill’s tour of Hazeltine in Nov. 1978; see Sid Dorfman, “Hill-Dye Jr. Reunited: 8-Year ‘Feud’ Ends,” The Sunday Star Ledger (Newark, NJ), 26 Nov. 1978, Sect. 5, 13.

271    “lovely, fun course, yet demanding”  Dave Hill quoted in Lorne Rubenstein, “Hazeltine National Golf Club,” Links, July/Aug. 2002, accessed on June 26, at  http://www.linksmagazine.com/golf_courses/hazeltine-national-golf-club-legacy.

271    “even Dave Hill now says he likes the course”  RTJ, GMC, p. 95. In Golf’s Magnificent Challenge (p. 95), Trent Jones wrote, “It usually takes time and refinement to  make a great golf course.” No golf course proves that aphorism more than Hazeltine, a layout that originally had definite problems and was strongly disliked by most pros but which over the years evolved into what is today an undeniably a great golf course. For many years now Hazeltine National Golf Club has been ranked by all of the major American golf magazines in their lists of top 100 courses. In 2007 Golf Magazine ranked Hazeltine National Golf Club as #8 on its list of “Top 45 Courses Since 1959. In 2016, the club will host its first Ryder Cup.

271    “The New Breed”  See Cornish and Whitten, AoG, p. 136.

272    “I need to do something just the opposite”  Pete Dye quoted in John Clayton, “PGA is set to honor bust designer Pete Dye,” TravelGolf, 5 Aug. 2004, accessed on 26 June 2013 at http://www.travelgolf.com/departments/clubhouse/dye-golf-course-designer-638.htm. For Dye’s life story, see Pete Dye with Mark Shaw, Bury Me in a Pot Bunker: Design Philosophies, Creative Insights and Playing Tips to Improve Your Score from the World’s Most Challenging Golf Course Architect (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, New Special Edition, 27 Mar. 2013). For a survey of Dye’s golf courses, see Joel Zuckerman, Pete Dye Golf Courses: Fifty Years of Visionary Design (Abrams, 2008).

272    “deliberate repudiation of the main elements of Jones’s designs”  See Cornish and Whitten, AoG, p. 145. At the end of their chapter on “The New Breed,” Cornish and Whitten asserted, “It was Pete Dye who changed the face of late-twentieth century architecture. The era of Robert Trent Jones faded as that of Pete Dye arose.” Dye became the next-generation “Architect the Pros Love to Hate.”

272    “Congressional Country Club in the bicentennial year”  For a review of the Congressional Country Club golf course on the eve of the 1976 U.S. Open and Joseph C. Dey’s definition of a “championship golf course,” see Joseph C. Dye, “Congressional Offers A Dramatic Stage for PGA’s Finishing Hole,” Golf Digest (Aug. 1976): 60. By this time, Dey had retired as executive director of the USGA in 1968. 

272    “round-faced, puckish-looking man”  “Jones Defends Golf Course,” Chicago Tribune, 18 Aug. 1975, Sect. 6, 3.