Chapter Eleven: A Family Affair

 

278    “Then we got away from it all”  HWW, “Profiles,” The New Yorker (4 Aug. 1951):43.

278    “phone installed in virtually every room”  Roger Rulewich to author, Bernardston, MA, 6 Aug. 2010.  Bobby and Rees often heard those phones ringing. They also met an extraordinary assortment of visitors to the Jones home—not just grandparents, aunts and uncles, and neighbors and friends, the sorts of guests their buddies would also receive, but prominent men such as Gene Sarazen, Stanley Thompson, Sam Snead, and Herbert Warren Wind. One of the family’s favorite guests was Herb Graffis, the Golfdom editor. “He was the funniest man,” Rees remembers. “He loved my mother and father, and had some grandiose ideas for our family. He was a very creative guy. He talked about practices ranges being ‘a golf park.’ Instead of just a place to hit balls, Herb wanted to have tables and chairs and serve soft drinks and cocktails behind the tee so you could get up and hit balls and then sit down and relax and converse” (RLJ to author, Montclair, NJ, 13 Oct. 2011).  Influential people from business, industry, politics, broadcasting, and entertainment as well as golf and other sports dropped by often to say hello to Trent and Ione, giving the boys a pat on the back or small gift.  In the early years, the guests included N.Y. State Commissioner of Parks James Evans, CBS Radio star Lowell Thomas, and USGA president Joe Dey. Later on such VIPS as Laurance Rockefeller, the multi-millionaire financier and venture capitalist, and Juan Trippe, the president of Pan American Airways, would visit. Rees and Bobby didn’t always know who the guests were or what was so important about them, but the boys, smart and ever-alert, figured that all of them had something to do with golf and thus their dad’s business. One of Rees’s godparents was Arthur Carter, the long-time mayor of Amsterdam, New York. In the mid-1930s Trent Jones and Mayor Carter had worked together to acquire the WPA funds needed to build Amsterdam Municipal Golf Course, which opened in 1938. “Mom and especially Dad loved to get to know significant people,” Rees explains, “and keep those acquaintances going in case some future opportunity came up.” In the case of the Amsterdam mayor, nothing more ever came from the relationship other than Carter standing in at Rees’s christening in late 1941. “He was my godfather,” Rees says with an amused smile. “But I never met him, not once” (ibid). So it was not just the world of golf that surrounded Trent’s sons as they moved into their teenage years, they were also exposed much more than most young people to the weighty worlds of state government, corporate business, high finance, broadcast media, and plain old making friends in high places.       

278    “trip alone with Dad”  RLJ to author, Montclair, NJ, 13 Oct. 2011.

279    “Grandfather Davis showed up at the door”  ibid.

279    “The bulldozer was still moving”  RTJ Jr. to author, Palo Alto, CA, 29 Oct. 2012. Not all of the shapers who would later come to work for Bobby during his career as a golf course designer felt that he possessed such a deep understanding of the shaper’s work.

280    “I preferred doing that”  ibid.

280    “Bobby made the team”  Yale University interview with RTJ Jr., 4 June 2006, Yale Golf Course, New Haven, CT, website “The History of Yale Golf,” accessed on 10 July 2013, at https://webspace.yale.edu/Yale-golf-history/index.htm.

280    “only room for one pro in the house”  RTJ Jr., quoted in John Garrity, “The Jones Boys,” Sports Illustrated, 31 May 1993, accessed on 10 July 2013 in the SI Vault, http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1138240/index.htm.

280    “going to be leader of the patrol”  RTJ Jr. to author, Palo Alto, CA, 29 Oct. 2012.

281    “he becomes a beta”  ibid.

281    “Our family had a relationship there”  RLJ to author, Montclair, NJ., 13 Oct. 2011.

281    “be the best at it”  RTJ Jr. to author, Palo Alto, CA, 29 Oct. 2012.

281    “taken lessons from anybody but me”  RTJ, GMC, p. 110.

281    “stronger and longer and with re-contoured greens”  Yale University interview with RLJ Jr., 14 Sept. 2006, Yale Golf Course, New Haven, CT, website “The History of Yale Golf,” accessed on 10 July 2013, at https://webspace.yale.edu/Yale-golf-history/index.htm.

282    “Cornell is one of the few places”  Handwritten draft by Rees Jones, application materials for admission into Cornell University, ca. March 1959, in RLJ Files, JP, CUA.

282    “inculcating me with that civic spirit”  RTJ Jr. to author, Palo Alto, CA, 29 Oct. 2012.

283    “so Senator Symington could win his bets”  ibid. Interestingly, Stuart Symington had connections to Trent Jones’s hometown of Rochester, NY. After graduating from Yale in 1923, he went to work for an uncle in the shops of the Symington Company of Rochester, which made malleable iron products. Until leaving Rochester for another job in 1930, Symington played golf at the Rochester Country Club where Jones had caddied just a few years before.

283    “feeling a yen to break away”  See The Golf Courses of Robert Trent Jones Jr. (NY: Gallery Books, 1988), p.6. There is no author for this book. Its editors were John Kirk and Timothy Jacobs, presumably employees of Gallery Book. The material for the book was likely to have been prepared by the staff of Robert Trent Jones II in Palo Alto. The “Jr.” is in a font much smaller than the letters of the main title.

283    “dismayed”  RTJ, Just Me, Trent Jones, p. 42.

283    “less to his liking than he expected”  See The Golf Courses of Robert Trent Jones Jr. (NY: Gallery Books, 1988), p. 6.

284    “former Stanford graduate student”  Walt Gamage, “Noted golf course designer opens West Coast office here,” Palo Alto News, 7 Nov. 1962, p. 29.

284    “sent Cabell to Spain”  See the “Cabell B. Robinson” entry in C&W, AoG, p. 386.

284    “literally grew up in the business”  RTJ, GMC, p. 92 and 110.

285    “among the most active course architects in the world”  The quote is from the “Roger G. Rulewich” entry in C&W, AoG, pp. 395-96.

285    “wonderful feeling for routing”  RTJ, GMC, p. 68.

285    “wonderful employee”  RTJ to AK, p. 88.

285    “most valued employee”  RTJ, Just Me, Trent Jones, p. 42.

285    “I don’t know what I would have done without him”  RTJ, Just Me, Trent Jones, p. 42.

286    “that I was leaving”  RR to author, Bernardston, MA, 25 June 2011.

286    “take some work away from him”  ibid.

287    “I learned by osmosis”  ibid. The Sports Illustrated article that Rulewich was referring to is Gwilym Brown, “Battling Architects,” 2 July 1962, accessed at the SI Vault on 15 July 2013 at http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1073966/index.htm.  It took a while before Rulewich got to work on any projects out in the field. His first efforts had little to with golf course design. “I had been there a few months and Jones called me into his office and told me, ‘I have a little project for you. I want you to go up to Woodstock Country Club—they need some bridges. They have a golf course with a creek running through it, and all they have ever done is throw rails across and wrap some boards around them, and every time it floods in the spring they wash out. You’re an engineer, Roger. I want you to make them some permanent bridges.’ So going up to Woodstock Country Club in Vermont was my first design and construction project. I took measurements, surveyed the crossings, got in touch with the local contractor to decide how we could build these things, ordered the steel, designed some steel beams for the bridges, and got the whole project done.  Everybody was happy with the work. I was, too, except it wasn’t golf course design. I wanted to get started in that” (ibid).

287    “His ears were always cupped”  ibid.

287     “I taught him how to swing better”  RTJ to AK, p. 81 and p. 88. Rulewich remembers playing a round of golf with Jones “only once the whole time I was with him” and that was not until the early 1980s when they were building two 18-hole courses in Alberta, Canada, at Kananaskis, not far from Banff. The client, Bob Parkin, who had been a pro golfer, took them up to Jasper Park for a round of golf and Rulewich paired up with Parkin in a four-ball match against Jones and Jones’s friend of many years, Arthur “Red” Hoffman, a golf writer of note who was working for Trent as a publicist. Roger remembers that the “exciting match” ended up halved. “That’s really the only time I ever played with Jones. But he was always quick to ask how my golf was, how I was doing, especially after I became a member at a golf club and was playing in events. One year I did manage to get runner-up in my flight of the club championship. Jones was very proud of my achievements in these golf events. He was always asking about how I was doing with my golf. ‘Let me see how you swing,’ he would say. He would take me into his office or out into the backyard and try to get a hold of my head, give me instruction. I found that interesting, that he would do that regularly but never ask me to go play some golf with him. He was probably too busy for that. One year he asked me, ‘What kind of clubs are you playing?’ When I told him, he grunted and said, ‘No, you need the best stuff.’ Jones had become a friend of Karsten Solheim, the founder of Ping, so he sent me over to the pro shop at Montclair Country Club and got me fitted not just for irons but a full set of Ping Eye-2s, woods and all. I never knew if Trent paid for them or if they were a gift on Trent’s behalf from Karsten Solheim. Anyway, that was part of his always being interested in how I was playing. It was nice that he was interested in me improving, and I did. I wasn’t just out there hacking around anymore. As I got better, I also learned that the golf course was something to be enjoyed. That was an essential point for me to know in designing golf courses.” RR to author, Bernardston, MA, 25 June 2011.

288    “missing a lot of business in the West”  RTJ, GMC, p. 100.  On this website, see the featurette entitled “Trent Jones’s Early Courses in the American West.”

288    “Dad, you can’t do that”  RTJ, GMC, p. 100.

289    “make you think the green is considerably closer”  RTJ Jr., Golf by Design, p. 225.

289    “how glad they were we had done it”  RTJ, GMC, p. 100. In his 1988 book, The Golf Courses of Robert Trent Jones Jr, Bobby tells essentially the same story of Eugene Country Club’s dramatic remodeling as his father. The golf course “was completely remodeled in 1967 by Robert Trent Jones Jr and Robert Trent Jones Sr,” Bob (or rather, his ghost writer) wrote. “The course was reversed; Jones, Sr., had never done that before, or since. The members of the country club played the course even during the remodeling, and when the process was completed, as part of the grand opening, the course was played the old way one day and the new way the next day.” The Golf Courses of Robert Trent Jones Jr., pp. 144-45.

          Eugene Country Club asked the USGA to host the U.S. Open and, in Trent Sr.’s opinion,  “it would have been an excellent venue, but its parking facilities were too limited” (RTJ, GMC, p. 100).

289    “The original Silverado Country Club”  The original club was developed originally by a man named Patrick Malkovich, who owned a large ranch in the Napa Valley; the original course was designed by California club professional Ben Harmon and accomplished amateur golfer Johnny Dawson, a member of the 1949 Walker Cup team. Harmon went on to build a half dozen golf courses, all of them in California. On Harmon, see C&W, AoG, pp. 283-84.

289    “Westgate’s company built California’s first condominiums”  See Scott Hankins, “Milestones: Silverado developer celebrates 100th birthday,” Napa Valley Register, 2 June 2012, accessed on 16 July 2013, at http://napavalleyregister.com/lifestyles/announcements/milestones-silverado-developer-celebrates-th-birthday/article_d9651c7a-ac68-11e1-b67b-001a4bcf887a.html.

290    “time of parting”  The Golf Courses of Robert Trent Jones Jr.,  pp. 144-45.

290    “Dad’s courses were getting too tough”  ibid, p. 6. The chapter on Silverado runs from page 144 through page 147.

290    “enhanced dramatic effect”  ibid.

290    “may not accept your criticism”  RTJ Jr., quoted in Bill Shirley, “The Other Robert Trent Jones,” Los Angeles Times, 8 Feb. 1973, 7.

290    “West Delta was a dead-flat site”  West Delta Park lay just minutes from downtown Portland. The site had a complicated and tragic history.  During World War II, thousands of shipyard workers, including most of Oregon’s African-American population, lived in a temporary housing development called Vanport, so-called because it was almost equidistant between Vancouver (WA) and Portland. At its peak right before the end of the war, Vanport was home to 40,000 residents, 16,000 of whom were African-American. By the spring of 1948, only 18.500 residents remained in Vanport, a mix of war workers and returning veterans studying at Vanport College, the predecessor to Portland State University. On May 30, 1948, a 200-foot section of the dike on the Columbia collapsed, and Vanport was rapidly flooded, officially killing fifteen people, a number long disputed in Oregon’s black community. The golf course would occupy a portion of the old Vanport site, now stabilized with construction debris.  See Michael McGregor, “The Vanport Flood and Racial Change in Portland,” The Oregon History Project, 2003, accessed on 25 Aug. 2013, at http://www.ohs.org/education/oregonhistory/learning_center/dspresource.cfm?resource_ID=000BC26B-EE5A-1E47-AE5A80B05272FE9F.

291    “many compliments over the years”  RTJ, Just Me, Trent Jones, p. 65.  See also Bill Mulflur, “Delta Park Course Earns High USGA Rating: Nine Holes of ‘Real RTJ Production’ Slated for Public Opening This June,” Oregon Journal (Portland, OR), 15 Jan. 1971.  There are a great many documents about the design and construction history of the West Delta Park Golf Course (Heron Lakes Golf Club) in the City of Portland’s Office of Archives and Records. Among other things, the documents make clear that the contract to design the golf course was issued by the city to Robert Trent Jones, Inc., with Robert Trent Jones, Jr., signing all the legal documents for the parent company. Originally, the city contracted with Jones, Inc., to “construct an eighteen hole golf course and separate nine hole par-3 course, complete with practice green and driving range”(Agreement Between Robert Trent Jones, Inc., and the City of Portland, Oregon, 15 Nov. 1967, West Delta Park Golf Course/Heron Lakes Golf Club Files, Office of Archives and Records, Portland, OR.) Concerns over the cost of the project led to the city changing its mind, first, in favor of just a 9-hole par-3 course, and then to an 18-hole par-3 course, before finally deciding that it had the resources to build a regulation 18-hole but not the 9-hole par 3. In the end, part of the resolution of the cost issue rested in the city’s decision to have its Portland Park Bureau personnel and equipment do most of the golf course construction under the supervision of Jones, Inc. In this instance, then, Jones did not bring in one of its shadow construction companies, perhaps because doing so was more problematic when dealing with a public agency such as a city. See the City of Portland, Ordinance 129301, “An Ordinance authorizing a supplemental agreement between the City and Robert Trent Jones, Inc., for additional services in connection with construction of the West Delta Park Golf Course, authorizing the drawing and delivery of warrants, and declaring an emergency,” passed by the City Council on 3 July 1969 and subsequently signed by the Mayor of the City of Portland and the Auditor of the City of Portland, copy in West Delta Park Golf Course/Heron Lakes Golf Club Files, Office of Archives and Records, City of Portland, OR. The author would like to thank Portland resident John Strawn for researching and securing copies of these and many other documents pertaining to the history of the design and construction of the golf courses inside West Delta Park.

293    “copses of oaks, winding uphill and down”  The Golf Courses of Robert Trent Jones Jr., p. 74.

293    “a symphony in green”  ibid, p. 81.

293    “editors simply and directly called it”  ibid., p. 20.

294    “jumped from fewer than ten thousand in 1960”  For a fine treatment of the phenomenal rise of the Hawaiian Islands as a vacation destination, see Gwilym S. Brown, Paradise: The Allure of the Hawaiian Resort (Princeton Architectural Press, 2006).  

295    “the very first guests to arrive at the Maui resort”  “My first visit to the Hawaiian Islands is filled with fond memories,” Trent later wrote (or possibly Ione wrote for him, as she often did, especially when she accompanied her husband to the site of a new golf course, which she had done in this case). “The Islands are filled with great beauty, lasting fragrances and bright splashes of rich deep colors. Nowhere is this more evident than at Ka’anapoli, Maui. When I first visited the site, the impression of nature’s handiwork was so overwhelming that I greeted the task of designing this golf course with extra relish. I wanted to make a golf course which would fit well with the natural assets nature had already provided to this area. Mindful of the history of the area, and of the bold push into the future which this development would make, I intended that this golf course should have all the qualities that would make it a renowned arena for championships.”  RTJ Sr., “Tentative Description of the Royal Kaanapali Golf Course Prepared by Robert Trent Jones,” typescript, Aug. 1964, p. 1.

295    “capture the flavor of the mountainous terrain”  ibid., pp. 1-2.

295    “play all the shots in their repertoire”  ibid, pp. 5-6.

295    “an average of 69.2 per round”  Low scores in the 1964 Canada Cup at Royal Ka’anapoli were made possible by ideal weather—cloudless skies, temperatures in the 80s and virtually no wind. Trent Jones, who attended the event, had been hoping for the trade winds to blow, which they often did at Ka’anapali from the northeast with gusts up to 40 miles an hour, and he jokingly scolded the mayor of Maui for his asking members of the 14 religious faiths on the island to pray for good weather.[i]  The runner-up team for the Canada Cup was from Argentina—comprised of Roberto de Vicenzo, who would win the 1967 British Open, and Leopoldo Ruiz, an eight-time member of Argentina’s Canada (later World) Cup and winner of 27 professional events in South America—finished 11 shots back. Fred Corcoran, “Fred Corcoran Calling…,” National Golfer, San Mateo, CA, Jan. 1965.

296    “not just a picturesque but a ‘breathtaking’ setting”  ibid. 

296    “house the hordes of mainlanders”  Quoted phrase from “Tycoons: Henry J.’s Pink Hawaii,” Time, 24 Oct. 1960.

297    “Kaiser Federal Bank”   Over a series of highly successful careers in which he had applied his business acumen to a vast array of industrial undertakings, Kaiser had created enormous wealth. His was a vast industrial empire that had deservedly earned him the title “The Western Colossus.” In retrospect, Kaiser was indeed one of the “Most Influential Businessmen of All Time,” a history-maker and world-changer in the league of Andrew Carnegie and Henry Ford.  Gwilym S. Brown, “A Shocking Approach to Tranquility,” Sports Illustrated, 28 June 1965, 75.  There is an extensive literature dealing with the life and career of Henry J. Kaiser. The best place to start is Mark S. Foster, Henry J. Kaiser: Builder in the American West (University of Texas Press, reprint edition, 2012.)

297    “cultivate the tropical good life”  Biographical studies of Henry Kaiser suggest that he developed an obsession with perfecting Honolulu’s urban landscape, developing civic centers and building roads and schools, but virtually everything Kaiser did in Hawaii centered on real estate development and promoting tourism. His first big resort project was the Kaiser Hawaiian Village Hotel. A huge hotel with ultimately over 3,000 rooms, it opened in the Waikiki area in 1957 on the site of what had been the village of Kalia, the childhood home of Duke Kahanamoku, Oahu’s “Big Kahuna” and five-time Olympic medalist in swimming. But no “Kahuna” had bigger ideas for Hawaii than Henry Kaiser. Masterminding the entire project from start to finish, Kaiser developed a unique “village plan” for his Hawaiian Village Resort, wherein the various “towers” or sections of the resort were designed in individual motifs (e.g., Diamond Head Tower, Lagoon Tower, Kalia Tower) indicative of the culture of the hotel’s surroundings. In the middle of it all a salt flat was transformed into a romantic tropical lagoon. Topping it all off was the erection on the property of one of the world’s first geodesic domes. Even before the Hawaiian Village Hotel opened, it became one of the most famous resorts in the world. A massive advertising campaign on American television paid for by Kaiser that promoted Kaiser aluminum foil, Kaiser dishwashers, Kaiser cars, as well as Kaiser’s new Hawaiian Village Resort. One of the TV programs that broadcast much of this advertising was the aforementioned Hawaiian Eye, a popular series that aired on ABC from 1959 to 1963, which featured young, attractive, and tanned private detectives who happened to be based in Kaiser’s Hawaiian Village.[ii]  

          In 1961 Kaiser sold the Hawaiian Village to the Hilton chain, which operates it to this day as the 17th largest hotel in the world. But Kaiser was hardly finished developing in Hawaii.

          Kaiser worked with Warner Brothers head Jack Warner to develop WB’s first television series, Cheyenne, a popular Western starring actor Clint Walker that was primarily sponsored by Kaiser aluminum foil and other Kaiser household products. To promote his Hawaiian ventures even further, Kaiser persuaded Warner to copy the formula of his popular series 77 Sunset Strip to create the new WB series Hawaiian Eye. Though the show featured private detectives based at Kaiser’s Hawaiian Village, the program was actually shot at WB studios in Burbank, California.

297    “Hawaii Kai”  All of this valuable real estate at Hawaii Kai emerged from dredging and filling in what had been the ancient Maunalua fishpond and wetlands area, a 521-acre property that Kaiser in 1959 leased from the estate of Bernice Pauahi Bishop, the Hawaiian princess who in 1884 died as the last surviving heir to the royal House of Kamehameha. In the history of the Hawaiian Islands, there have not been many more controversial events than the lease of this large tract of former Hawaiian royal land to Kaiser for such a development.[iii]  From Kaiser’s point of view, however, Hawaii Kai was a great success story. It became one of the most exclusive, suburban, high-income neighborhoods not just in Honolulu but in all of Hawaii.

          See Samuel Pailthorpe King and Randall W. Roth, Broken Trust: Greed, Mismanagement, and Political Manipulation at America’s Largest Charitable Trust (University of Hawaii Press, 2006).The leasing of the land to Herman Kaiser for his development of Hawaii Kai by the Estate of Bernice Puaahi Bishop was strongly condemned by many native Hawaiians at the time as has the entire administration of Bishop Estate over the following years right up to the present.  Her estate was the largest private landowner in the state of Hawaii, comprising nearly 10% of Hawaii’s total area. Much of the revenue from these lands were used to operate the Kamahameha Schools, which were established in 1887 according to the Princess Pauahi's will. As the title of the book cited above indicates, the administration of the Pauahi Bishop Estate (the princess was married to American businessman and philanthropist Charles Reed Bishop), especially in the second half of the 20th century, was riddled with “greed, mismanagement, and political manipulation.” As for controversies related to the development of golf courses, and their cultural and environmental impact, no state saw more of them than Hawaii. In the 1980s it became the site for some of the most ardent anti-golf activism seen anywhere in the world. The chief organization that has consistently spoken out against the ill effects of golf course development in Hawaii and around the world is The Global Anti-Golf Movement, whose manifesto was written by a citizen of Japan by the name of Gen Morita in 1992. The first two principles of the manifesto read: (1) “Golf courses and golf tourism are part of a ‘development’ package which includes infrastructure (multi-purpose dams, airports, ports, roads, bridges), mass tourism, expensive housing, entertainment facilities, export-oriented agriculture (flowers, exotic fruits and vegetables), and industrial parks/zones;” (2) “At the heart of the golf industry is a multi-billion-dollar industry involving transnational corporations, including agribusiness, construction firms, consultancies, golf equipment manufacturers, airlines, hotel chains, real estate companies, advertising and public relations firms as well as financial institutions.” The mandate then calls for (1) “An immediate moratorium on all golf course development;” (2) “An open and public environmental and social review/audit of existing golf courses;” (3) “Existing golf courses should be converted to public parks, and where they lie in forest areas, wetlands and islands, there should be rehabilitation and regeneration of the land to its natural state;” (4) “Investigations into illegalities in the golf industry, including illegal occupation of public lands and encroachment into protected forests, diversion of water, violation and evasion of corporate regulations. We call on governments to prosecute the violators;” (5) Laws should be passed to prohibit the advertising and promotion of golf courses and golf tourism;” and (6) “Overseas development assistance from countries including Japan Australia and European public funds should not be used for the promotion of golf courses and golf tourism or the construction of infrastructure related to such development.” See http://www.antigolf.org/english.html, accessed on 25 July 2013.

          Any historical examination of the issues and impulses leading up to such strong feelings against golf course development worldwide, which are still very strong in many places around the world, needs to take a careful look at what has happened in the Hawaiian Islands since the time of Herman Kaiser, if not before, to the present.

297    “too busy building other courses”  A second course at Hawaii Kai did get built. It opened in 1973 as a 6,614-yard, par-72 course designed by William F. Bell, the son of charter ASGCA member William P. “Billy” Bell. Both father and son had served as ASGCA presidents, in 1952 and 1957, respectively. Prior to the Joneses, the number one name in Hawaii golf course history had been Bell. In 1947 Billy Bell built 18-hole golf courses in Hawaii, both on Oahu for U.S. military bases: the Kaneohe Klipper Golf Club (6,528 yards, par 72), located directly across the Ko’olau Mountains from Honolulu, which served the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station at Kaneohe Bay, and the Navy-Marine Golf Course (6,758, par 72) at Pearl Harbor. Both courses came to be considered among the best military golf courses—and in the case of Kaneohe Klipper, definitely among the most picturesque—anywhere in the world. William P. Bell took over his father’s business upon his death in 1952. How exactly he got the job to design the championship course at Hawaii Kai is not altogether clear, but the credentials of Bell’s design firm in the Islands were every bit as strong as Jones’s. Besides his father’s reputation in Hawaii, William between 1966 and 1971 had finished three excellent 18-hole courses in the Islands. Two of them were built for a new resort up the west coast of Oahu from Honolulu: the Makaha Resort and Country Club (1968; 6,369 yards, par 71) and adjacent Makaha Valley Country Club (1969; 6,260 yard, par 71). The other was the Ocean Course at Kona Country Club (1966; 6,613 yards, par 72), at scenic Keauhou on the Big Island. (In the mid-1980s, Bell, with the help of young Californian Robin Nelson, would lay out a second eighteen at Kona called the Mountain Course.)

298    “Jones’s association with Lawrance Rockefeller”   Jones’s association with Laurance Rockefeller predated their collaboration on Mauna Kea. The first project they did together was the creation in 1958 of the 18-hole Dorado Beach Golf Hotel Golf Course on Puerto Rico’s northern coast. Set on one of the most spectacular pieces of ocean beach in the Caribbean, the golf course turned out beautifully, so well in fact that it was immediately chosen to host the 1961 Canada Cup (won by the U.S. team of Jimmy Demaret and Sam Snead). By the time that international championship was staged at Dorado Beach—the first ever Canada Cup in the Caribbean—Rockefeller had moved his sights onto the Hawaii Islands. The inspiration behind Rockefeller’s decision to build his next great vacation resort in the Hawaiian Islands came from William F. Quinn (appointed by Eisenhower), Hawaii’s last territorial governor, its first state governor, and a major shareholder (later president) of the Dole Pineapple Company. Early in 1960 Governor Quinn (born in Trent’s boyhood home, Rochester, New York) asked Laurance Rockefeller if he could build a major resort that would attract tourists to the islands. Rockefeller was quite interested but not totally confident of Hawaii’s tourism future. He was even less sure of where “his sort” of luxury resort might best go in the Islands.

298    “more byway than freeway”  Gwilym Brown, A Shocking Approach to Tranquility,” Sports Illustrated, 28 June 1965, 75.

299    “that’s exactly the kind of beach”  RTJ, GMC, p. 99. There is another version of the story as to how Laurance Rockefeller came to build the resort at Mauna Kea. According to it, Governor William F. Quinn invited Rockefeller to visit the islands as part of a study for a federal commission that Rockefeller chaired. After visiting Parker Ranch with the governor, Rockefeller was taken for a swim in the bay. He fell in love with the beauty and remoteness of the locale and determined it would be there off Kaunaoa Bay that he would build his beach resort hotel. There is perhaps a way to reconcile this version with the one told by Trent Jones, if Rockefeller showed Jones the site from the air after he had already visited it with the governor.

299    “the potential was certainly there”  ibid., p. 99.

 

 

 

299    “average rainfall was only eight inches”  ibid., p. 147.

300    “if there is enough water”  ibid., pp. 147-48.

300    “Okay, let’s go ahead now”  RTJ to AK, pp. 106-07.

301    “nothing had ever grown in the material before”  RTJ, GMC, p. 152.

301    “qualities of mainland bent”  A good summary of the methods used to grow turf grass from the lava rock at Mauna Kea can be found in The Golf Courses of Robert Trent Jones Jr., p. 85.

301    “anchor the topsoil to the lava base”  ibid., p. 85.

301    “fill in fissures and crevices”  RTJ, GMC, p. 152.

301    “most difficult site since Durand Eastman”  ibid., p. 82.

301    “might never have been built without using those procedures”  ibid., p. 152.

303    “pièce de résistance at Mauna Kea”    Trent Jones certainly always considered Mauna Kea among his crowning achievements. Yet it is difficult to assess what part of his justifiable pride in the course stemmed from the spectacular nature of the site and the enormous difficulties of building a golf course on a lava field as compared to what he thought about the architectural features he designed into its layout, notably its undulating fairways, steep greens, doglegs, and strategically placed bunkers and greenside sand traps. Critics of the course opined that the course required too many uphill approach shots into the greens, some of them quite severe, and that there too many semi-blind downhill tee shots, particularly on the 2nd and the 9th, both par-4s. And, for those golfers good enough, courageous enough, or stupid enough to play Mauna Kea at its full distance, one of the course’s critics argued that some of the championship tees “stretched the course beyond credibility” (Doak, The Confidential Guide to Golf Courses, p. 221).  

          There was no question but that Mauna Kea possessed some truly great holes. One of them, the 11th, was a par-3 that played a mammoth 247 yards from the back tee; fortunately, few golfers could hit it over the green, not on their first shot, because right behind the small, extremely well-bunkered green was a sheer drop-off of 100 feet to the crashing ocean right behind it. Japanese PGA star, Isao Aoki, who made Mauna Kea his practice haven, called the 11th “the hardest par three in the world not over water”  The Golf Courses of Robert Trent Jones Jr., p. 86). Another great hole was the dogleg 14th, a short 393-yard par 4 that had beautiful natural contours to help turn the fairway sharply to the left and the challenges of hitting a well-positioned tee shot and precise approach shot on a hole with especially tough bunkering all the way from the inside of the dogleg uphill to the green. The par-17th hole, a 550-yard par 5, also stood out as an excellent hole, it too turning sharply to the left. On it, the bigger hitters were strongly tempted to risk cutting the corner for a shot at getting home in two for an eagle try.

303    “Nor are there any more beautiful sights”  Though admittedly biased, Trent Jones felt that the 3rd at Mauna Kea was a better hole than Alister MacKenzie’s masterpiece at Cypress Point. “As magnificent as the 16th at Cypress Point is,” argued Jones, “it is really not a par-3 for many players, at least not a fair one. Unless he wants to go to the women’s tee, any man is faced with a carry of 218 yards over water from even the front of the tee. Many players, maybe most of them, cannot carry a shot that far. He can lay up to the left with an iron, of course, but that makes par extremely difficult and birdie unlikely.” On the other hand, the third hole at Mauna Kea, in Jones’s view, “requires a similar carry over water, although a bit shorter—178 yards to the front of the green, 210 to the middle. With the wind in force, that’s a heroic carry for any player. But at Mauna Kea there are three other sets of tees that offer carries of 167, 158, and 113 yards, respectively, to the front. The latter shot must carry over only a tip of the water. Thus the player has the option of playing the tee that best suits his ability, and he or she still will be able to make the shot, as it should be” (RTJ, GMC, pp. 214-16).  For Jones, the challenge of shooting over water was always much more mental than physical, and a golf hole with water as a hazard should be designed with that sort of shot value in mind. A “one-shotter” over the rush of an ocean didn’t need—and in fact, shouldn’t—require a player to pull off a perfectly struck, full-out swing of nearly 220 yards to make it across the imposing hazard. One hundred eight to two hundred yards was long enough even for good players for such a dramatic shot. For the average and below-average golfer, a distance of 120 yards was plenty long to test their mettle when it came to hitting over part of the Pacific Ocean. Anyway, as Jones also pointed out, hitting a ball long was no answer, because anything over the green also went into the ocean.  Trent Jones also comments on the challenges and beauty of the third hole at Mauna Kea can be found in The Golf Courses of Robert Trent Jones Jr., p. 85.

304    “across the deep blue Pacific in a facing wind”  The copy for the advertisement read: “The great third hole, with a 170-yard over-water carry is already rated by the experts as one of the most exciting anywhere. It’s one of the many features of the magnificent new Mauna Kea Beach Hotel course, on the Orchid Isle of Hawaii.” Incidentally, Trent Jones stood in the picture behind Nicklaus, alongside TV on-course commentator Bob Rosburg. The advertisement ran in several consecutive issues of Sports Illustrated in the last months of 1964 and the first months of 1965 prior to the opening of the hotel and golf course in July 1965.

304    “I haven’t seen it”  Robert Trent Jones, Jr., quoted in Bill Shirley, “The Other Robert Trent Jones,” Los Angeles Times, 8 Feb. 1973, 1. Bobby made virtually the same comment in the chapter of “Princeville Makai Golf Course,” in The Golf Courses of Robert Trent Jones Jr., p. 132.

304    “scenic beauty and marvelous playability”  The Golf Courses of Robert Trent Jones Jr., p. 132.

305    “willing to travel to Hawaii to play”  L. Douglas Hoyt, President, Eagle County Development Corp. of Denver, quoted in Bill Shirley, “The Other Robert Trent Jones,” Los Angeles Times, 8 Feb. 1973, 6.

305    “I felt I had earned his respect”  RTJ Jr., quoted in Bill Shirley, “The Other Robert Trent Jones,” Los Angeles Times, 8 Feb. 1973, 6.

306    “27 magnificent holes for us”  RTJ, GMC, p. 106.

307    “incorporates”  RTJ Jr., 198 Churchill Ave., Woodside, CA, to Paul A. Colwell, 7 Church St., Montclair, NJ, 4 Nov. 1975, in Paul A. Colwell Files, JP, CUA.

308    “No, I am not going to do that”  RTJ Jr., Woodside, CA, to author, 30 Oct. 2012.

309    “an opportunity to recover”  “Welcome to Oakcreek Country Club—Sedona Golf,” accessed on 7 Aug. 2013, at http://www.oakcreekcountryclub.com/.

309    “in the usual Trent Jones manner”  The Oakcreek Country Club website (noted above) clearly advertises the club’s belief that Robert Trent Jones, Sr., actively participated in the design of its golf course. In 2003 Robert Trent Jones II completed a major renovation of the golf course which involved, among other things, the rebuilding of all the greenside bunkers.

However, Sedona’s Oakcreek Country Club is not mentioned a single time in Jones’s 1987 book Golf’s Magnificent Challenge, or in Jones’s interview with Alice Kendrick of the USGA in 1991, or in “Just Me, Trent Jones,” which he dictated in Marge Darwell in 1995-96, or in any other autobiographical account or interview known to this author.

309    “consolidate in himself”  RTJ Jr., 198 Churchill Ave., Churchill Ave., Woodside, CA, to RLJ, P. O. Box 301, Montclair, NJ, 27 Nov. 1974, p. 1, Files of RTJ II, Palo Alto, CA.

310    “But Bobby listened to me”  RTJ to AK, pp. 42-43.

310    “shouting matches”  RLJ, Montclair, NJ, to author, telephone interview, 22 Aug. 2013.

311    “made for a very good working relationship”  Eleven of f Rees’s first fourteen jobs for his father were done in the company of Rulewich. In 1968 their joint projects for RTJ Inc. included Fairview Country Club (par 72, 6,747 yards) in Greenwich, Connecticut; Montauk Downs State Park Golf Course (par 72, 6.976 yards) on Long Island; Palmetto Dunes Golf Club (par 72, 7,005 yards) on Hilton Head; and Fairington Golf and Tennis Club (par 72, 6,996 yards; later to be renamed the Metropolitan Golf and Tennis Club) in Decatur, Georgia.

          Of the four, Montauk Downs and Palmetto Dunes stood out as the best golf designs, especially Montauk, which Jones Inc. massively redesigned from the original course that had been laid out at Montauk in 1927. (As we learned in Chapter One, the original Montauk Downs golf course was developed by Miami Beach entrepreneur Carl G. Fisher and designed by Captain Walter C. Tippett.  Starting with the Great Depression, the course suffered from many years of neglect. [NOTE:  The original golf course at Montauk had been built in 1927 by Carl G. Fisher, who in the 1920s was the principal developer of Miami Beach. The architect of the first course at Montauk was Captain H. C. Tippett. Wanting to turn Montauk into the “Miami of the North,” Fisher, besides building the golf course, had built Montauk Manor, Montauk Yacht Club, and a six-story office building in downtown Montauk, only to lose his fortune in the 1929 Stock Market Crash. As discussed in Chapter One, Trent Jones, as a young man playing professional golf tournaments in South Florida, had gotten to know both Fisher and Tippett. Here, at Montauk forty years later, Jones built a totally new golf course where the old one has been.] It was a great natural site for a golf course, at the far eastern end of Long Island, surrounded by both the Atlantic Ocean and Block Island Sound, making for one of the windiest spots for a golf course anywhere in the country. It was not an easy course to build anew, with several wide expanses of rough woods and thicket, some significant drain age problems, and the need to plant a number of trees to screen fairways corridors one from another. But with a great deal of attention from Rees and Roger, Jones Inc. completed a splendid course at Montauk, one where the majority of holes played to small greens that required very precise approaches over well-placed bunkers. Five water hazards also challenged the golfers. The biggest test came at the par-3 12th, soon to be considered one of Long Island’s toughest holes. At 228 yards, it played from an elevated tee to a well-trapped elevated green, with a deep valley of fescue grass in between. Originally organized as a private club, the small group of investors who hired Jones in 1966 to rebuild the course eventually collapsed into bankruptcy. But the State of New York purchased the layout in 1978, turned into one more outstanding state park golf course. For many years thereafter, Montauk Downs was consistently rated as one of America’s top public golf courses. In 2002, the course underwent significant redesign, appropriately overseen by Rees Jones, Inc. The renovations included moving back tee boxes to lengthen holes and to bring hazards back into play, reconstructing bunkers, and installing a new irrigation system.  The redesigns enhanced the course’s reputation. In 2009, Montauk Downs was ranked second in Golf World’s list of Reader's Choice Awards for “Overall Value,” sitting only behind Bethpage Black n Bethpage State Park, also on Long Island, a gem of a championship golf course that served as the site of the 2002 and 2009 U.S. Opens. Today, Golfweek lists Montauk Downs as the 42nd Best Municipal Course in America.

          But it was the building of Fairview Country Club near Greenwich, Connecticut, just over the New York state line, that may have taught Rees and Roger the toughest, most important lessons of their early careers. The golf course was built on a steeply sloping site where teeing areas and green complexes required massive cut and fill work.

          On Hilton Head at Palmetto Dunes, Jones Inc. was confronted with a different kind of challenge: that of designing a good and interesting golf course-to-play where the footprint for golf had been squeezed tightly by the demands of a larger master-planned real estate development which put more emphasis on the location of its condominiums than on the routing of the golf course. The resulting course had some weaknesses but it alwso had some exceptional strengths. Notably, it had one of only two oceanfront holes existing on all of Hilton Head—the par-5 10th that offered a spectacular view of the Atlantic Ocean. Palmetto Dunes also benefitted from a thoughtful use of an 11-mile-long lagoon system that came into play on eleven of the holes. Fittingly, Rulewich returned to the South Carolina barrier island (the Eastern seaboard’s second largest) in 2002, where he gave the golf course an extensive renovation by reshaping and restructuring tees, greens and bunkers; elevating and reshaping fairways, and improving the course's natural drainage by linking it with the resort’s lagoon system. When the renovation was completed the South Carolina Golf Course Owners Association named Palmetto Dunes the 2003 Golf Course of the Year. Today the resort, calls it the “Robert Trent Jones Oceanfront Course,” thereby distinguishing it from the “George Fazio Course” completed there in 1974 and the “Arthur Hills Course” which opened in 1986.  The resort lists Rulewich as the golf course’s co-designer, a credit that he certainly deserves.

            [NOTE:  In the last decades of the 20th century, the appeal of “golf course living” for homeowners resulted in a proliferation of housing developments built in and around golf courses. In most cases, the building of the homes, townhouses, or condominiums of the development took priority, in terms of use of the land, over the design of the golf course per se. Golf architects were faced with the new challenge of routing golf holes to maximize the value of the home lots. Some designers accomplished this more effectively than others. Without question, compromises in support of the development’s master plan had to be made that often detracted from the quality and natural aesthetics of the golf architecture. Architect Tom Doak discussed a specific example of this design problem in his 1992 book, The Anatomy of a Golf Course (NY: Lyons & Burford, Publishers): “When a course must be routed in corridors through a development of homes to be designated out-of-bounds, it is essential that the corridors be wide enough to allow considerable latitude for miss hits. A hole with development on both sides must have a corridor at l;east 300 feet in width, or conflicts will be frequent. When the corridor contains two parallel holes, some overlap is allowable because a stray shot to the middle does not endanger homeowners, but there must be a minimum 500 feet of width for the two holes” (p. 168). In his Confidential Guide to Golf Courses, Doak is especially hard in his evaluation of golf courses where architects have mishandled or compromised too much to the rationales of a housing development. About Palmetto Dunes Golf Club, Doak opined: “The original Trent Jones design is the quintessential Sixties-style development golf course, arranged more for airspace between the condos than for interesting play. I've seen more of it than I need to just from driving past on the highway” (p. 124). As a course rater for Golfweek magazine since 1997, I can testify that the great majority of course raters picking “America’s Best” hate to see goolf courses where the housing has dictated the routing or stands too closely and intrusively to the golf course. Courses without real estate development associated with them are far more appealing to aficionados of golf course architecture. What must be remembered, however, is that many of these courses would never have been built if not associated with a major residential development.

311    “Spring Green, Wisconsin”  In 1991 architect Roger Packard along with PGA pro, U.S. Open champion, and Wisconsin native, Andy North added a third nine for Spring Green Golf Course.

311    “Trent left most of the design”  Trent was more active in the design of Panther Valley Golf & Country Club in Allamuchy, New Jersey, located just north of Hackettstown, some 50 miles west of New York City. The site was a large estate formerly belonging to Clendenin Ryan (1905-1957), a millionaire businessman best known as the owner and publisher of the American Mercury magazine and for being a friend of New York Mayor Fiorella H. LaGuardia and someone who once campaigned to become New Jersey governor. Panther Valley, part of an exclusive real estate development, was, as Trent called it, “a very tough job.” “We had to cut through a lot of rock. A swamp was also one of our difficulties, but I made it into a water hole, which gave that part of the golf course a special character.” Thirteen of the holes at Panther Valley rambled along the floor of a deep valley. The par-71, 6,850-yard layout turned out to be one of New Jersey’s most scenic courses and, for a time, considered to be one of its best. RTJ, “Just Me, Trent Jones,” p. 58.

312    “one of the greatest finishing holes”  RTJ, GMC, p. 103; Dan Foster, “Jones: 1 of 10 Best Courses We’ve Designed,” The Greenville News (Greenville, SC), 18 Sept. 1970, 36. In the years immediately following the opening of the Chanticleer Course at Greenville Country Club, some serious issues pertaining to the drainage course would arise as a result of extremely heavy winter rains. In 1972 Jones Inc. returned to the golf course with a lengthy drainage improvement and remodeling plan; see RGR, RTJ Inc., to Mr. Harrison, Greens Chairman, Greenville Country Club, The Chanticleer Course, 239 Byrd Blvd., Greenville, SC, 24 Feb. 1972, Greenville Country Club (Chanticleer) Files, JP, CUA.

312    “primarily responsible for the Chanticleer course”  An excellent summary history of the origins of Crag Burn Golf Club and Bobby Goodyear’s role in the design can be found on the club’s website, http://www.cragburn.com/.

312    “Rees and Roger would continue to work”  One of the courses that Rees and Roger completed together was The Rail Golf Course in central Illinois, the site for which was a sprawling 240-acre dairy farm bordering the Carpenter Park Nature Preserve a few miles north of Springfield, the state capitol. Jones Inc. finished The Rail’s first nine in 1970, the second nine in 1974. Two years later, the course hosted the first of what would turn out to be 30 straight years of the LPGA Rail Classic, originally played as the Jerry Lewis Muscular Dystrophy Golf Classic. A largely treeless and wide-open par-72 layout that played to 6,630 yards from the back tees and typically around 6,000 yards for the LPGA event, The Rail succumbed to a great deal of low scoring by the lady professionals, including four ten-under par 62s: by Laura Davies in 1991, Kathryn Marshall in 1997, Christina Kerr in 2004, and Annika Sörenstam in 2006. Once rated as a four-star course by Golf Digest magazine, The Rail is still considered to be one of the best courses in central Illinois.

          For the first two years of the LPGA Rail Classic—in 1976 when the event was known as the Jerry Lewis Muscular Dystrophy Golf Classic and in 1977 as The Rail Muscular Dystrophy Classic— the tournament was underwritten solely by the owners of the golf course. In 1978, a community-based not-for-profit organization took over the tournament and ran it for the next 15 years. In 1993 State Farm Insurance became the title sponsor. From 1978 to 1992 the event was known as The Rail Charity Golf Classic; from 1993 to 2001 as the State Farm Rail Classic; and from 2001 to 2006 as the State Farm Classic. In 2007 the venue for the tournament moved to Panther Creek Country Club, also in Springfield, IL, a course designed in 1992 by Dick Phelps and Hale Irwin. In the years that the event was played at the Rail, Betsy King won the title three times (’85, ’86, ’88) while Nancy Lopez (’80, ’92), Beth Daniel (’89, ’90), and Pat Bradley (’78, ’91) each won it twice.

313    “be kept small and manageable”  An excellent summary of the origins of Crag Burn Golf Club and Bobby Goodyear’s role in the design can be found on the club’s website: http://cragburn.com.

313    “forerunner to the return to natural golf courses”   RTJ, “Just Me, Trent Jones,” p. 63.

313    “contribute to the making of a great course”  There is no question but that Crag Burn is one of Trent Jones’s “best unknown gems” (RTJ, GMC, p. 103).  A number of architectural experts have agreed. Tom Doak has called it “one of my favorite Jones courses,” featuring “many good holes without being over-stylized like many Jones layouts, and the maintenance decision to let long grasses grow between the holes gives it a very nice look” (Doak, The Confidential Guide to Golf Courses, p. 87). Five-time PGA Tour winner Scott Verplank once called the par-5 2nd hole at Crag Burn one of the best holes in the country.

313    “so I built the biggest green in the world”  RTJ, GMC, pp. 261-62.

313    “once tried to hit a six-iron across it”  RTJ, GMC, pp. 261-62. On the design of the monster green at Aventura, see “Triple Trouble: The monster green at Aventura serves three holes and is so big that even Julius Boros can’t hit a 4-iron from one end to the other,” Golf Magazine (July 1975): 54-55. In 2007, PGA star and South Florida resident Raymond Flord put both courses at Turnberry Yacht & Golf Club through complete overhauls costing a total of some $30 million. In the process of the reconstruction, some 700,000 cubic yards of dirt were moved to create a more gently rolling, one where sand traps and water hazards were even more abundant than in the original Jones design. Afterwards, the South Course was renamed the “Soffer Course” and the North Course became the “Miller Course.” Both courses enjoyed a wealth of exotic Florida bird life, including flamingos, meriting its status as an Audubon bird sanctuary.

313    “as Rees took more and more responsibility”  The last course that Rees and Roger worked on together before Rees left his dad’s business was Capacon Springs Golf Course, in West Virginia’s Capacon (a Shawnee word meaning “medicine waters” and pronounced ka-PAY-con) Resort State Park near Berkeley Springs, just south of Hancock, Maryland. Laid out in the shadows of the wide expanse of Capacon Mountain, the 6,827-yard, par-72 public golf course made excellent use of the rolling foothills lying at the base of the mountain as well as the small streams that flowed down the mountain and through the golf course. Into the beautiful topography, Jones Inc. created three ponds that came into play on four holes, and 73 strategically placed bunkers. Here, too, Jones built a huge putting surface, a double green over 100 yards wide.

          Although Rees, while working for his father, did most of his work in the company of Roger Rulewich, he did take on several projects on his own. These included two assignments in Texas: at Sugar Creek Country Club in Sugarland, where 27 holes of golf were built, and an eighteen at Rayburn Country Club in Jasper. In Florida, he led the work on an executive layout,  Kings Point West Golf Course, in Sun City. In Alabama, he took the lead on the creation of 36 holes at Alpine Bay Country Club in Talladega. In Georgia, he did the principal work on Gordon Lakes Golf Course at Fort Gordon in Augusta. In Maryland he handled the project to design and build Ocean Pines Country Club in Ocean City. In the state of New York, he led the way on the creation of two very good courses both upstate near Lake Ontario: Glen Oak Golf Course (originally Ransom Oaks Country Club) in East Amherst, 15 minutes from downtown Buffalo, and Bristol Harbour Village Golf Club in Canandaigua, 24 miles southeast of Rochester.

314    “Rees’s courses can be demanding”  RTJ, GMChallenge, p. 114.

315    “battle should be fun and fair”  RLJ quoted in GMC, p. 114.

315    “we never want him here again!”  RLJ, Montclair, NJ, to author, 15 Aug. 2013.

316    “the greatest contribution we could have made”  The series of quotes by RTJ Sr. about his sons’ leaving his business come from various published sources (mainly GMC, p. 106 and p. 110), from unpublished sources (such as “Just Me, Trent Jones”), as well as from different interviews he gave over the years (notably to the USGA and ASGCA).

318    “administered through the Palo Alto office”  All of the quotes dealing with the credentials of RTJ Jr., Richard M. Spray, and Orris “Bud” Sexton come from RTJ Jr., RTJ Inc., 705 Forest Ave., Palo Alto, CA, to John D. Crowley, General Manager, Public Utilities, Room 287, City Hall, San Francisco, CA, 1 Apr. 1971. This proposal is for a “contemplated recreational complex” in San Mateo County, not for a golf course. Copy in Files of RTJ II, Palo Alto, CA.

319    “made great business sense”  “Qualifications of Metcalf & Eddy,” in RTJ Jr., RTJ Inc., 705 Forest Ave., Palo Alto, CA, to John D. Crowley, General Manager, Public Utilities, Room 287, City Hall, San Francisco, CA, 1 Apr. 1971. This proposal is for a “contemplated recreational complex” in San Mateo County, not for a golf course. Copy in Files of RTJ II, Palo Alto, CA.

319    “mainly served as Bobby’s senior designer”  Gary R. Baird assisted Bobby with the coordination of design for Rio Rico Golf and Country Club in Arizona, Lake Shastina Golf & Country Club in California, Incline Green Golf Club in Nevada, Heron Lakes Golf Course in Oregon, and both Princeville Makai Golf Club and Waikoloa Village Golf Club in Hawaii. Without Baird, Bobby’s operation could not have taken on as many projects as it did. Between the time he came on board with Bobby in late 1972 to the time he left Bobby’s employ to form his own design firm in 1977, Gary Baird provided major assistance in the design of no fewer than a dozen new courses. Three of them were in California: Rancho California Golf Club [renamed the Southern California Golf Association Golf Club], Spring Valley Lake Country Club, and Bodega Harbour Golf Club. Two were in Colorado: Arrowhead Golf Club and Steamboat Village Country Club. Baird also assisted in the creation of Elkhorn Country Club in Idaho and Horseshoe Bay’s Slick Rock Course in Texas. Overseas, Baird would assist Bobby in the design of Pacific Harbour Golf & Country Club on Fiji, and Pondak Indah Golf Club in Indonesia, In Mexico, he gave primary assistance on three projects: Istra de la Piedra Country Club (no longer in existence), Palma Real Golf Club, and Pok-Ta-Pok Golf Club. Baird also did a significant amount of Bobby’s renovation work at Bel-Air Country Club, Birnam Wood and Palo Alto Muni in California, and Mauna Kea Beach Hotel Golf Club in Hawaii.

          In 1973 Bobby added Donald J. Knott to his staff in Palo Alto. Fresh off a Master of Architecture degree from the University of California, Knott worked for Bobby as a designer for a year before heading to Jones Inc.’s new office in Spain, which was chiefly responsible for taking care of Trent Jones Sr.’s growing business around Europe. In 1977 Knott returned to work in Palo Alto, now as part of the recently established Robert Trent Jones II. There he served as the chief designer and lead project architect for Bobby, ultimately becoming RTJ II’s first vice president for design. In 1999 Knott formed Knott & Linn Golf Design with former Robert Trent Jones II partner and ASGCA member Gary Linn.  Knott was a highly talented and hard-working architect that Bobby was lucky to have working for him. Prior to a divorce, Knott was also the son-in-law of Robert Muir Graves, a distinguished ASGCA member with offices in the East Bay, and a local rival of RTJ II.

          For brief profiles of Gary R. Baird and Donald J. Knott, see C&A, AoG, pp. 196-97 and 316-17. The author conducted a lengthy interview with Mr. Knott at the annual ASGCA meeting held in Chattanooga, TN, 27 Apr.-1 May 2012. For the ASGCA in 1991, Knott also conducted a lengthy taped interview with RTJ Sr. covering many details of his life’s work. 

320    “out too much for himself”  RLJ, Montclair, NJ, to author, telephone interview, 22 Aug. 2013.

321    “So I took charge of the situation”  RTJ Jr., Woodside, CA, to author, 30 Oct. 2012.

322    “Monies received will first be used”  RTJ Jr. to RTJ Sr., “Personal and Confidential,” n.d., circa 20 Mar. 1974, in Paul A. Colwell Files, JP, CUA.

323    “in excess of $300,000”  PAC, “A review of personal and corporate finances,” 7-page handwritten memorandum, 3 May 1974, PAC Jr. Files, JP, CUA.

323    “now on deposit in California be sent to Montclair”  RTJ Sr., Ione Davis Jones, and RLJ to RTJ Jr., 705 Forest Ave., Palo Alto, CA, Registered Mail, 8 July 1974, RTJ Jr. Files, JP, CUA. Apparently, Bobby had already been told more than once that he needed to do a better job separating the expenses and receipts of Jones Inc., from his separate business accounting for RTJII. “In our capacities as stockholders, directors, and officers of Robert Trent Jones, Inc.,” their letter to Bobby dated 8 July 1974 began, “we wish to confirm our previous statements to you that we specifically disapprove and find unacceptable the retention in California of funds of Robert Trent Jones, Inc. We have not and do not give you the authority to retain funds of Robert Trent Jones., Inc., other than a petty cash account not to exceed $5,000.00, and request that all funds now on deposit in California be sent to Montclair for deposit in the corporate account at American National Bank. Henceforth all expenses incurred by Robert Trent Jones, Inc., will be paid from Montclair with the exception of small amounts to be paid from your petty cash account.”

324    “no additional stock was issued”  Donald  Hobart, Porter & Hobart, Counselors at Law, 46 Church St., Montclair, NJ, to PAC Jr., Esq., 7 Church St., Montclair, NY, “Re: ROBERT TRENT JONES, INC., 1 Nov. 1965. See also PAC Jr., RTJ Inc., to Mr. Milton Brooks, Brooks, Bass, DeVaney, Kulsar & Leshner, 303 Claremont Ave., Montclair, NY, 12 May 1967. Both letters deal with the stock issue of 1957 to the four members of the Jones family. This correspondence was found in the PAC Files, JP, CUA.  Mr. Colwell was Trent and Ione’s longtime certified public accountant and legal adviser.

324    “the company must buy that person’s stock”  PAC to “RTJ;’ IDJ; RTJ Jr; RLJ,” 28 Oct. 1976, PAC Jr., Files, JP, CUA.

324    “Trent initially refused to sign”  Memorandum from PAC, handwritten, dated 19 Apr. 1973, PAC Files, JP, CUA.

324    “totaled $679,500”   PAC, Memorandum to File, “Conference of November 28, 1973, between Colwell, Fleder, Cohn and Harrington,” 28 Nov. 1973, PAC Jr. Files, JP, CUA. All four of the men at the meeting were lawyers. Samuel Fleder and Walter Harrington were California attorneys who were representing Jones Jr.

324    “what’s yours is part-mine, too”  RTJ Jr., Woodside, CA, to author, 30 Oct. 2012.

325    “I would never make any”  Story told by RTJ Jr., Woodside, CA, to author, 30 Oct. 2012.

326    “good luck and Godspeed”  RTJ Jr., 198 Churchill Ave., Churchill Ave., Woodside, CA, to RLJ, P. O. Box 301, Montclair, NJ, 27 Nov. 1974, p. 1, Files of RTJ II, Palo Alto, CA.

326  “Kuala Lampur, Malaysia”  Stanley Consultants, Inc., News Release, “Stanley Consultants to Design Malaysian Tourist Complex,” 18 Apr. 1975, “Augusta National Files, JP, CUA.

327    “such incidents do not occur in the future”  Philip R. Wahl, Manager, Augusta National Golf Club, 27 May 1975, Augusta National Files, JP, CUA.

327    “for the great contributions each made to the game”  RTJ Sr. to Philip R. Wahl, Manager, Augusta National Golf Club, 22 May 1975, Augusta National Files, JP, CUA.

327    “plagiarize their efforts”  It is interesting, if not ironic, that Trent Jones would use the word “plagiarize” in this context of golf course design. In golf design, a type of “plagiarizing” is routine. Around the world rhere are hundreds of “Redan” and “Cape” holes, and so forth. It is not in this sense of “plagiarizing” that Jones employed the term here. What would have expressed his sentiment more clearly would have been to say, “I would not claim credit for work done by other designers.” Augusta National was not accusing him of copying holes from the course. That issue would come up, however, in the mid-1990s, with the “Tour 18”-concept courses. The brainchild of a Texas-based firm that built 18-hole courses near Houston and near Dallas that replicated 18 of the most famous holes in America, including numbers 11, 12, and 13 at Augusta, along with holes from Pebble Beach, Pinehurst No. 2, and Harbour Town, among others. In 1996 the Pebble Beach Co., Resorts of Pinehurst, Inc., and Sea Pines Co., Inc, brought suit against Tour 18, LTD. At issue was “plagiarism” of the original golf holes. Heard by the U.S. District Court, Houston (TX) Division, the court issued its final judgment on 6 Nov. 1996. It can be found at its entirety at http://www.leagle.com/decision/19962455942FSupp1513_12252. In sum, the court judged that “it would be improper for the Court to allow Tour 18 to copy Pebble Beach Hole 14 and Pinehurst No. 2 Hole 3 but at the same time enjoin Tour 18 from mentioning the names of the original golf holes. Thus, the Court must craft an injunction that remedies the confusion generated by Tour 18’s unfair service mark usage of the marks PEBBLE BEACH and PINEHURST, but preserves Tour 18’s right to use the marks in a purely descriptive and non-confusing advertising context. In the Court's view this result is best achieved by allowing Tour 18 limited use of the service marks PEBBLE BEACH and PINEHURST in its advertisements and promotional materials as long as such usage is coupled with a prominent disclaimer of association, affiliation, sponsorship, and permission. While the current Tour 18 disclaimers contain sufficient language of disclaimer, their size, location, and prominence must be increased. Additionally, Tour 18 must remove all superfluous, "attention-getting" uses of PEBBLE BEACH and PINEHURST from its scorecards, yardage guides, menu, mailers, and other promotional materials. This injunction will restrict Tour 18 from trading on the good will of the service marks by requiring Tour 18 to emphasize its own name, not plaintiffs', in its advertisements and promotional materials. Additionally, the injunction will protect the public from being confused by deceptive advertisements and claims that engender an affiliation, association, or sponsorship between the parties.” It is not known to the author what Trent Jones thought about this 1996 court case.

327    “Remodeled or Partly Remodeled”  Richard Spray, RTJ Inc., 705 Forest Ave., Palo Alto, CA, to RTJ Sr. and PAC, 13 June 1975, in Augusta National Golf Club Files, JP, CUA.

328    “critically important that an objective evaluation be made”  PAC to RTJ Inc., Memorandum, 14 Mar. 1975, PAC Files, JP, CUA.

328    “from now on had to be ‘cleared’”  See, for example, RTJ Sr. to Mr, D. N. Haerer, Marketing Communications Coordinator, Stanley Consultants, Inc., Muscatine, IA, 28 May 1975, Augusta National Golf Club Files, JP, CUA. Stanley Consultants was the firm that issued the problematic press release about the Malaysian golf course development. 

328    “Dear Bobby”  RTJ Sr. to RTJ Jr., 26 June 1975, found in the files of RTJ II, Palo Alto, CA.

329    “Maybe I could sleep again”  PAC Jr. to Walter H. Harrington, Jr, Esq., Harrington and Salomon, P.O. Box 1064, Redwood City, CA, 24 Sept. 1976, in PAC Jr. Files, JP, CUA.

329    “It’s messy, leaky”  Walter H. Harrington, Jr., Esq., Harrington and Salomon, P.O. Box 1064, Redwood City, CA, to PAC Jr., 7 Church St., P.O. Box 304, Montclair, NJ, PAC Jr. Files, JP, CUA.

329    “Mr. Jones requested that I advise you”  PAC Jr. to Walter H. Harrington, Jr, Esq., Harrington and Salomon, P.O. Box 1064, Redwood City, CA, 21 Oct. 1976, in PAC Jr. Files, JP, CUA.

330    “An unending argument”  PAC, Memorandum for Record, 29 Dec. 1972, PAC Jr. Files, JP, CUA. Although this memorandum came almost four years before the final resolution between the Joneses, Colwell used it as the basis for the agreement that was settled in 1976.

330    “kept 25 percent control”  See Kenneth S. Shaffer, CPA, 4907 N. E. 9th Ave., Fort Lauderdale, FL, and Law Offices of Leonard & Morrison, 2810 E. Garland Park Blvd., P.O. Box 11025, Fort Lauderdale, FL, to Robert Trent Jones Corporations, “Attn: Ms. Cathy A. Lynch-Wasahio, CPA,”  1 Mar. 1986, Coral Ridge Country Club Files, JP, CUA.

331    “better than the neighboring Harbour Town”  RTJ, GMC, p. 114.

332    “done with integrity and without an architect’s ego”  RTJ, GMC, pp. 181-82.

332    “in his overall business sense”  RTJ, GMC, pp. 161.

333    “eclectic”  RTJ, GMC, p. 110.

333    “named SentryWorld the best new course”  RTJ, GMC, p. 113.

333    “more four-putt opportunities”  Doak, Confidential Guide to Golf Courses, p. 215.

333    “we’ve become a triumphant family”  RTJ to AK, p. 44.

334    “honored for their contributions to the sport”  Hank Machirella, “Designer of 500 courses to be honored as family,” Montclair (NJ) Sunday News, 12 May 1979.  

334    “the family situation actually was under the surface”  Into the early 1980s the public saw stories such as “Teeing Off with the Joneses;” “Robert Trent Jones is the Magic Name in Golf Course Design: But is it Junior or Senior?” (People, 22 Aug. 1977, 32-3); “The Other Robert Trent Jones” (Los Angeles Times, 8 Feb. 1973, 1 and 5-6); and Tom Ramsey, “Robert Trent Jones, Senior and Junior— Dividing the World” (Golf, Jan. 1979, 47-8).  As can be told from the headlines, journalists were developing story lines around the father’s relationship to his namesake, with nary a word about any sibling rivalry.

334    “in a sort of chill”  Jolee Edmondson, “The Feud of the Fairway,” Signature (Apr. 1984): 49-50.

335    “he wants people to think he’s the Robert Trent Jones”  RTJ Sr. quoted in ibid., 101-02.

335    “it’s wonderful that they did break away”  Ione Davs Jones quoted in ibid, 50-51.

336    “acting like children”  John Garrity, “The Jones Boys: Despite an often prickly relationship, different styles and professional rivalry, Robert Trent Jones and his sons thrive in the business of golf-course design,” Sports Illustrated, 31 May 1993, accessed on 30 Aug. 2013, at http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1138240/index.htm.

336  “But they’ll come back”  RTJ Sr. quoted in Edmondson, “The Feud of the Fairway,” 105.